2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.
1 : IFREMER, Lab EMP PHYC, F-44311 Nantes, France.
2 : Univ Nantes, LUNAM, MMS EA2160, Fac Pharm, F-44035 Nantes, France.
3 : Alfred Wegener Inst, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.
Aquatic Toxicology (0166-445X) (Elsevier Science Bv), 2012-11 , Vol. 124 , P. 179-187
Bivalve molluscs, Mussel, Ecophysiology, AZA biotransformation, AZA accumulation, Trophic transfer, Dinoflagellate, Azaspiracid
Azadinium spinosum, a small toxic dinoflagellate, was recently isolated and identified as a primary producer of azaspiracid toxins (AZAs). Previous experiments related to AZA accumulation in blue mussels upon direct feeding with A. spinosum revealed increased mussel mortality and had negative effects on the thickness of the digestive gland tubules. Therefore we conducted follow up experiments in order to study effects of A. spinosum on mussel feeding behaviour. Individual assessment of mussel feeding time activity (FTA), clearance rate (CR), filtration rate (TFR), absorption rate (AR), faeces and pseudofaeces production were carried out on mussel fed either toxic (A. spinosum) or non-toxic (Isochrisis aff. galbana (T-Iso)) diets. Furthermore, AZA accumulation and biotransformation in mussels were followed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Azadinium spinosum had a significant effect on mussel feeding behaviour compared to T-Iso: CR was lower by a factor of 6, FTA by a factor of 5, TFR by a factor of 3 and AR even decreased to negative values for the last day of exposure. Even so, a rapid AZA accumulation was observed during the first hours of the trial; less than 6 h of feeding were required to reach AZA concentration in mussel above regulatory level. In consistence with physiological observations, AZA concentration of about 200 μg kg−1 did not increase further until the end of the study. AZA bioconversion was also found to be a fast process: after 3 h of exposure AZA17, -19 and AZA7-10 were already found, with a proportion of AZA17 equal to AZA2. These results show a negative effect of A. spinosum on blue mussel feeding activity and indicate a possible regulation of AZA uptake by decreasing filtration and increasing pseudofaeces production.