Offspring development and life-history variation in a water flea depends upon clone-specific integration of genetic, non-genetic and environmental cues

Type Publication
Acceptance Date 2017-04-18 IN PRESS
Language English
Copyright 2017 The Authors. Functional Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Author(s) Harney Ewan1, Paterson Steve2, Plaistow Stewart J.2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, UMR CNRS 6539 (CNRS/UBO/IRD/Ifremer); Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement Marin (LEMAR); ZI de la Pointe du Diable, CS 10070 Plouzané 29280 ,France
2 : Institute of Integrative Biology; University of Liverpool; Biosciences Building, Crown St. Liverpool L69 7ZB ,UK
Source Functional Ecology (02698463) (Wiley-Blackwell) In Press
DOI 10.1111/1365-2435.12887
Keyword(s) developmental plasticity, cue integration, maternal effects, non-genetic inheritance, water flea, probabilistic maturation reaction norm
Abstract

Theory predicts that offspring developmental strategies involve the integration of genetic, non-genetic and environmental ‘cues’. But it is unclear how cue integration is achieved during development, and whether this pattern is general or genotype-specific.

In order to test this, we manipulated the maternal and offspring environments of three genetically distinct clones of the water flea Daphnia magna taken from different populations. We then quantified the effect that the genotype, maternal environment and the offspring environment had on the development and life-histories of the three different clones.

Mothers responded to the same maternal environments in different ways, resulting in clone-specific maternal effects on neonate size. Offspring responses to maternal cues varied according to the trait in question and were also clone-specific. The integration of these maternal effects during development was highly context-dependent in two clones but more consistent across environments in the third.

Genetic, non-genetic and environmental cues contributed to offspring phenotypic variation in all three clones, but there was no general pattern linking traits to specific cues. In fact, two clones used different combinations of cues at different points in development to achieve similar phenotypic outcomes. Reaction norms for the age and size at which maturation was initiated differed among genotypes, between maternal environments and across current environments. Developmental transitions such as the decision to mature may thus play an important role in determining patterns of cue integration.

Considering multiple traits during development demonstrated that variation in the integration of genetic, non-genetic and environmental cues was an important determinant of life-history variation among D. magna genotypes. This variation is likely to influence phenotypic evolution.

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Lay Summary 1 112 KB Open access
Figure S1. The number of instars occurring before maturation in three clones of D. magna 1 529 KB Open access
Figure S2. Average growth rate before maturation in three clones of D. magna 1 507 KB Open access
Figure S3. Average growth rate during maturation in three clones of D. magna 1 507 KB Open access
Figure S4. Age at maturity in three clones of D. magna 1 500 KB Open access
Figure S5. Size at maturity in three clones of D. magna 1 498 KB Open access
Figure S6. Number of offspring in the first clutch for three clones of D. magna 1 525 KB Open access
Table S1. Posthoc interaction analysis of maternal effects on neonate size 13 KB Open access
Table S2. Results of univariate analysis showing the effects of clone, maternal environment and current food environment on six developmental traits in D. magna 16 KB Open access
Table S3. Posthoc interaction analysis of maternal effects on six developmental traits 19 KB Open access
Table S4. Binomial GLMs for PMRN analysis 13 KB Open access
Publisher's official version IN PRESS 12 567 KB Open access
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