Improved electromagnetic bias theory: Inclusion of hydrodynamic modulations

Type Article
Date 2001-03
Language English
Author(s) Elfouhaily T1, Thompson Dr1, Chapron Bertrand2, Vandemark D3
Affiliation(s) 1 : Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD 20723 USA.
2 : Inst Francais Rech Exploitat Mer, Dept Oceanog Spatiale, F-29280 Brest, France.
3 : NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Lab Hydrospher Proc, Wallops Island, VA 23337 USA.
Source Journal Of Geophysical Research Oceans (0148-0227) (Amer Geophysical Union), 2001-03 , Vol. 106 , N. C3 , P. 4655-4664
WOS© Times Cited 23

The modulation of short ocean waves by longer ones is a likely contributor to the radar altimeter's electromagnetic ranging bias (EM bias). An analytic model to account for this component of the EM bias is developed here under a two-scale two-dimensional hydrodynamic assumption. Following the principle of wave action balance, a standard hydrodynamic modulation transfer function is used to establish that the longer modulating waves enter the EM bias formulation not only through their elevation and slope variables but also through their quadratures. These latter contributions help to explain the role of long-wave slope and orbital velocity fields within the EM bias problem. Simplified analytical expressions are derived using linear Gaussian statistics for both modulating and modulated waves. For the sake of completeness an outline of the possible extension to nonlinear interacting waves is provided.

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Elfouhaily T, Thompson Dr, Chapron Bertrand, Vandemark D (2001). Improved electromagnetic bias theory: Inclusion of hydrodynamic modulations. Journal Of Geophysical Research Oceans, 106(C3), 4655-4664. Open Access version :