Heterogeneity of sediments and settling particles in aerated ponds

Type Article
Date 2006-03
Language English
Author(s) Kassila Jawad1, Hussenot Jerome1
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER, CNRS, Ctr Rech Ecosyst Marins & Aquacoles, Houmeau, France.
Source Aquaculture Research (1355-557X) (Blackwell science), 2006-03 , Vol. 37 , N. 5 , P. 449-465
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2006.01444.x
WOS© Times Cited 2
Keyword(s) Sampling strategy, Resuspension, Sedimentation, Artificial aeration, Particles, Sediment
Abstract A study was conducted in seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ponds to assess the levels of heterogeneity of sediments and settling particles. The intensity of sampling to estimate with high accuracy some characteristics will depend on the magnitude of the variation within the population under consideration. Several variables, such as total phosphate (Tot-P), total iron (Tot-Fe), total ammonium nitrogen (TAN), organic carbon (Org-C), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and P fractions were analysed during the rearing period. The box-and-whisker plots were used as graphical/statistical tools to visualize the descriptive statistical characteristics of the data. In the fish pond, the sediments have high concentrations of Tot-P, Tot-Fe and TAN in comparison with the settling particles. The high C/N ratios in the sediments indicate that the organic matter was more highly degraded in comparison with that of settling particles. The iron- and calcium-bound P (CaCO3 approximate to P) represented 23% and 47% of Tot-P respectively in the fish-pond sediments, whereas the Tot-P was essentially under organic form in the settling particles. In the oyster pond, the trapping rate of solids reached 417 g m(-2) day(-1) under the trestles. The material consisting mostly of oyster rejection products was less degraded. The similarity in the C/N ratios indicated that the organic matter collected under the oyster trestles was not different from that collected out of trestles. We used multivariate analysis to determine the number of samples needed to be taken to represent the C, N and P average amounts. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that the CaCO3 approximate to P and Tot-Fe are the key factors to describe the spatial heterogeneity of the fish-pond sediments. However, the analysis gives no indication of the heterogeneity of settling particles. A partition of the studied stations into different classes was performed by the hierarchical ascending classification (HAC). To assess the variability of the sediments and settling particles during the rearing period, one station could be selected from each group for the next sampling. We used a dilution analysis method to evaluate the magnitude of sedimentation and resuspension in the fish pond. The calculated proportion of resuspension relative to the total flux ranged from 71% to 80% in the fish pond. The ranges of Org-C and Tot-N in the resuspension rate were 19-41 and 2.6-6.7 g m(-2) day(-1) respectively.
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