Characterization of new recombinant noroviruses
|Author(s)||Ambert Balay K1, 2, Bon F1, 2, Le Guyader Soizick3, Pothier P1, 2, Kohli E1, 2|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : CHU Dijon, Virol Lab, Reference Lab Ethn Viruses, F-21079 Dijon, France.
2 : Univ Dijon, UFR Med, UFR Pharm, F-21079 Dijon, France., F-21079 Dijon, France.
3 : IFREMER, Microbiol Lab, F-44311 Nantes, France.
|Source||Journal of Clinical Microbiology (0095-1137) (American Society for Microbiology), 2005-10 , Vol. 43 , N. 10 , P. 5179-5186|
|WOS© Times Cited||79|
|Keyword(s)||Genogroup, RNA recombination, Gastroenteritis, Round structured virus, Reverse transcription, Norovirus|
|Abstract||Noroviruses are important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis and show great genetic diversity. To characterize more fully previously detected strains that could not be assigned unequivocally to one particular genotype based on the RNA polymerase, we have sequenced a region in the capsid gene and, in some cases, in the junction between open reading frame 1 (ORF1) and ORF2. The results allowed us to identify several recombinant noroviruses: GGHb viruses were detected for the first time in France in August 2000 and then spread through France and to Europe during the following winter. Here we present the characterization of three other probable GII recombinants which showed different phylogenetic positions depending on their ORF1 and ORF2 sequences. Analysis of the region located between ORF1 and ORF2 by a nucleotide identity window search showed a sudden shift in similarities. Moreover, recombination breakpoints were identified upstream and downstream of the beginning of ORF2 by using a statistical test, thus confirming the involvement of this region in recombination. Unlike GGHb, the three recombinants described here do not seem to have diffused widely in the community: one was found in a waterborne outbreak, and the other two were found in sporadic cases. Recombination is important for the evolution of RNA viruses and has already been described for noroviruses. Our results suggest that recombination is not a rare phenomenon among noroviruses, but not all these presumed recombinants that formed during RNA replication are able to spread widely.|