Human and animal enteric caliciviruses in oysters from different coastal regions of the United States
|Author(s)||Costantini V1, Loisy Fabienne2, Joens L3, Le Guyader Soizick2, Saif L1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Ohio State Univ, Ohio Agr Res & Dev Ctr, Dept Vet Prevent Med, Food Anim Hlth Res Program, Wooster, OH 44691 USA.
2 : IFREMER, Microbiol Lab, F-44311 Nantes 03, France.
3 : Univ Arizona, Vet Sci & Microbiol Dept, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.
|Source||Applied and environmental microbiology (0099-2240) (American society for microbiology), 2006-03 , Vol. 72 , N. 3 , P. 1800-1809|
|WOS© Times Cited||85|
|Keyword(s)||Monitoring, Microbiology, Sampling, Oyster, Shellfish tissue, Human norovirus, Calicivirus|
|Abstract||Food-borne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization worldwide. Enteric caliciviruses are capable of persisting in the environment and in the tissues of shellfish. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have been implicated in outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption. The genetic and antigenic relatedness between human and animal enteric calliciviruses suggests that interspecies transmission may occur. To determine the occurrence of human and animal enteric calliciviruses in United States market oysters, we surveyed regional markets. Oysters were collected from 45 bays along the United States coast during the summer and winter of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR, and results were confirmed by hybridization and sequence analysis. Nine samples (20%) were positive for HuNoV genogroup II after hybridization. Animal enteric caliciviruses were detected in 10 samples (22%). Seven of these samples were positive for porcine norovirus genogroup II, and one sample was positive for porcine sapovirus after hybridization and confirmation by sequencing. Bovine noroviruses were detected in two samples, and these results were confirmed by sequencing. Five HuNoV samples sequenced in the polymerase region were similar to the norovirus genogroup II US 95/96 subset (genogroup II-4) previously implicated in diarrhea outbreaks. Different seasonal and state distributions were detected. The presence of animal enteric caliciviruses was associated with states with high livestock production. Although the presence of human calliciviruses in raw oysters represents a potential risk for gastroenteritis, disease confirmation by investigation of outbreaks is required. The simultaneous detection of human and animal enteric caliciviruses raises concerns about human infection or coinfection with human and animal strains that could result in genomic recombination and the emergence of new strains.|