||Joffraud Jean-Jacques1, Cardinal Mireille1, Cornet Josiane1, Chasles Jean-Sebastien1, Leon Sandrine1, Gigout Frederique1, Leroi Francoise1
||1 : IFREMER, Dept Sci & Tech Alimentaires Marines, F-44311 Nantes 3, France.
||International Journal of Food Microbiology (0168-1605) (Elsevier), 2006-08 , Vol. 112 , N. 1 , P. 51-61
|WOS© Times Cited
||Spoilage, Interaction, Microbial flora, Cold smoked salmon
||Cold-smoked salmon is a lightly preserved fish product in which a mixed microbial flora develops during storage and where the interactive behaviour of micro-organisms may contribute to their growth and spoilage activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the bacterial interactions between the main species contaminating the cold-smoked salmon on bacterial growth, chemical and sensory changes, and spoilage. First, Carnobacterium piscicola, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactobacillus sakei, Vibrio sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Serratia liquefaciens-like were inoculated as pure cultures on sterile cold-smoked salmon. All bacterial species grew well; Vibrio sp. was the fastest and L. sakei strains developed very rapidly as well with a high maximum cell density on cold-smoked salmon blocks (up to 109 cfu g− 1 after 10 days at 8 °C). Based on sensory analysis, Vibrio sp. was identified as non-spoilage bacteria, C. piscicola as very lightly and B. thermosphacta as lightly spoiling. L. sakei and S. liquefaciens-like were found to be the most spoiling bacteria. Secondly, C. piscicola and L. sakei, two species frequently occurring in the lactic flora of the product, were inoculated together and each of them in mixed cultures with respectively P. phosphoreum, Vibrio sp., B. thermosphacta, and S. liquefaciens-like. The growth of L. sakei was shown to strongly inhibit most of the co-inoculated strains i.e. P. phosphoreum, B. thermosphacta, S. liquefaciens-like and, to a lesser extent, Vibrio sp. The growth of C. piscicola seemed to be enhanced with B. thermosphacta and to develop earlier with P. phosphoreum and Vibrio sp. Conversely, S. liquefaciens-like and P. phosphoreum were weakly inhibited by C. piscicola. The main observation resulting from the sensory evaluation was the delay in the appearance of the spoilage characteristics in the mixed cultures with L. sakei, in particular L. sakei/ S. liquefaciens-like. On the other hand, the spoilage activity of the non-spoiler strains Vibrio sp. or the moderate spoilage strains B. thermosphacta and C. piscicola was increased when they were associated together.It is concluded that the spoilage behaviour of micro-organisms in mixed culture is significantly different from pure culture and explain the difficulty to find robust quality indices for this product.