Biomasse et production primaire du phytoplancton et du microphytobenthos de deux biotopes sableux (Golfe de Fos, France)

Autre(s) titre(s) Biomass and primary production of phytoplankton and microphytobenthos in a sheltered and an exposed beach (Gulf of Fos, France)
Type Article
Date 1987-04
Langue(s) Français
Auteur(s) Plante-Cuny Marie-Reine1, Bodoy Alain2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, Station Marine d'Endoume, rue de la Batterie des Lions, F 13007 Marseille, France.
2 : IFREMER, CULTURES MARINES LAB, F-17390 LA TREMBLADE, FRANCE.
Source Oceanologica Acta (0399-1784) (Gauthier-villars/editions Elsevier), 1987-04 , Vol. 10 , N. 2 , P. 223-237
DOI 10670/1.ao8959
WOS© Times Cited 31
Mot-Clé(s) biomasse, production primaire, phytoplancton, microphytobenthos, mediterranee
Résumé On a comparé durant deux années la biomasse (Chla fonctionnelle) et la production primaire (bilans d'oxygène) des microphytes benthiques et planctoniques de deux plages de sables fins (0,5 m de profondeur), soumises à des conditions hydrodynamiques différentes. La station de mode calme (RD) abrite notamment un peuplement de Ruditapes decussatus (pélécypode) tandis que la station de mode agité (DT) soumise à l'influence du large, est habitée par des peuplements d'un autre pélécypode, Donax trunculus. Dans le compartiment pélagique (phytoplancton) les variations saisonnières sont à peu près identiques dans les deux stations. Les moyennes annuelles de la biomasse et de la production primaire sont sensiblement équivalentes (1.40 ± 0,56 et 1,94 ± 0,78 mg Chla.m - 2: 19,60 ± 11.09 et 20,29 ± 8.45 mgc.m - 2.h -1 respectivement en RD et DT). En revanche, dans le compartiment benthique (microphytobenthos), des floraisons d'automne sont plus accentuées à la station de mode calme (RD) qu'à la station de mode agité (DT). La moyenne annuelle de biomasse (1er cm d'épaisseur du sédiment) est Il fois plus élevée à la station RD qu'à la station DT (42,89 ± 6,86 et 3,87 ± 1,84 mg Chla.m- 2) et la moyenne de la production primaire 4 fois supérieure (19,94 ± 6,13 contre 4,77 ± 3,12 mgC.m- 2.h- 1). Dans la station RD (calme), la biomasse benthique (1er centimètre) est 30 fois supérieure à la biomasse planctonique, alors que les productions primaires sont équivalentes. Dans la station de mode agité (DT) la biomasse benthique est seulement double de la biomasse planctonique et la production primaire planctonique est 4 fois supérieure à la production benthique. L'étude des corrélations montre que des liaisons étroites existent entre les deux stations pour les paramètres du domaine pélagique, alors que dans le domaine benthique, les moyennes et les évolutions sont différentes dans les deux sites. La station de sables fins de mode calme est, au total. à l'échelon primaire (plancton + benthos), plus riche et plus productive que la station de mode agité.
Keyword(s) biomass, primary production, phytoplancton, microphytobenthos, mediterranean
Résumé en anglais The primary production (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos) of a coastaL shallow water ecosystem (0.5 m) was investigated in two sandy areas, differing by their wave exposure. The physical and chemical parameters, the functional chlorophyll and pheopigments as well as the primary production were measured monthly, throughout a two-year study. The bivalve Ruditapes decussatus was the dominant species in the sheltered station (RD), whereas Donax trlmcu/us inhabited the other station (DT) which was exposed to the open-sea waves. Microphytic biomasses were determined after extracting chlorophyll a and pheopigments in 90% acetone. by spectrophotometric measurements before and after acidification. Gross hourly primary production was estimated by measuring the oxygen balance in light and dark enclosures. The mlcrophytobenthos was considered in the upper centimetre. The main characteristics of the water. temperature. salinity and dissolved oxygen were more variable in the sheltered area; the redox potential was generally lower in this sediment and the vertical profile revealed a "redox potential discontinuity"• which usually did not appear in the open site. In the water column (phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations were similar in both stations. The annual average values of Chla and primary production were equivalent (1.40±0.56 and 1.94±078 mg Chla.m2: 19.60±11.09 and 20.29±8.45mgCm- 2.h- 1 in RD and DT respectively). On the other hand. for the microphytobenthos. the autumn blooms were more pronounced in the sheltered station (RD) than in the wave-exposed one (DT). The annual average value of the biomass (ChIa in upper cm of sediment) was Il times higher at the RD than the DT station (42.89 ± 6.86 and 3.87 ± 1.84 mg Chla.m• 2) and the annual average of primary production 4 limes higher (19.94±6.13 and 4.77 ± 3.12 mgC m-2 .h-1). The benthic biomass was 30 times higher at the sheltered station (RD) than the planktonic one. whereas the primary production values were similar. In the wave-exposed station (DT), the benthic biomass was only twice that of the planktonic one and the planktonic primary production 4 times higher than the benthic one. The P/E ratios (assimilation numbers) indicated a better efficiency at the planktonic level [14 mgC(mg ChIa) -1.h-1 for the sheltered site and 10.46 for the open station]. They were only of 0.46 and 1.23 mgC(mg Chla) -1 - h-1 for the benthos. Such results revealed that the primary production did not exhibit the same difference between the two stations as the chlorophylI A correlation analysis gave evidence of strong relationships between both stations for the pelagic parameters, but no correlations were found between the two sites at the benthic level. When considering the primary producers (plankton + benthos) as a whole. the sheltered station was richer and more productive than the wave-exposed one. The waters were similar in both sites. indicating a common origin, but the productivity was more important in the sheltered area. due to the richness of the benthic microflora
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