|Author(s)||Verhoef L1, Depoortere E2, Boxman I3, Duizer E1, Van Duynhoven Y1, Harris J4, Johnsen C5, Kroneman A1, Le Guyader Soizick6, Lim W7, Maunula L8, Meldal H9, Ratcliff R10, Reuter G11, Schreier E12, Siebenga J1, Vainio K9, Varela C13, Vennema H1, Koopmans M1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Ctr Infect Dis Contro, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands.
2 : European Ctr Dis Prevent & Control, Stockholm, Sweden.
3 : Food & Consumer Prod Safety Author, Zutphen, Netherlands.
4 : Hlth Protect Agcy, London, England.
5 : Statens Serum Inst, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark.
6 : IFREMER, Ctr Nantes, F-44311 Nantes, France.
7 : Hong Kong Special Adm Reg, Publ Hlth Lab Ctr, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
8 : Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
9 : Norwegian Inst Publ hlth, Oslo, Norway.
10 : Inst Med & Vet Sci, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.
11 : State Publ Hlth Serv, Baranya Cty Inst, Pecs, Hungary.
12 : Robert Koch Inst, D-1000 Berlin, Germany.
13 : Inst Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
|Source||Emerging Infectious Diseases (1080-6040) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 2008-02 , Vol. 14 , N. 2 , P. 238-243|
|WOS© Times Cited||78|
|Abstract||In June 2006, reported outbreaks of norovirus on cruise ships suddenly increased; 43 outbreaks occurred on 13 vessels. All outbreaks investigated manifested person-to-person transmission. Detection of a point source was impossible because of limited investigation of initial outbreaks and data sharing. The most probable explanation for these outbreaks is increased norovirus activity in the community, which coincided with the emergence of 2 new GGII.4 variant strains in Europe and the Pacific. As in 2002, a new GGII.4 variant detected in the spring and summer corresponded with high norovirus activity in the subsequent winter. Because outbreaks on cruise ships are likely to occur when new variants circulate,. an active reporting system could function as an early warning system. Internationally accepted guidelines are needed for reporting, investigating, and controlling norovirus illness on cruise ships in Europe.|
Verhoef L, Depoortere E, Boxman I, Duizer E, Van Duynhoven Y, Harris J, Johnsen C, Kroneman A, Le Guyader Soizick, Lim W, Maunula L, Meldal H, Ratcliff R, Reuter G, Schreier E, Siebenga J, Vainio K, Varela C, Vennema H, Koopmans M (2008). Emergence of new norovirus variants on spring cruise ships and prediction of winter epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(2), 238-243. Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/3942/