Changes of gill and hemocyte-related bio-indicators during long term maintenance of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus held in aquaria at atmospheric pressure
|Author(s)||Bettencourt R1, Dando P2, Rosa D1, Riou V1, Colaco A1, Sarrazin Jozee3, Sarradin Pierre-Marie3, Santos R1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Azores, Genet & Mol Biol Lab, IMAR Dept Oceanog & Fisheries, P-9901862 Horta, Portugal.
2 : Marine Biol Assoc United Kingdom Lab, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon, England.
3 : Ifremer, Ctr Brest, Dept Etud Ecosyst Profonds, Lab Environm Profond, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
|Source||Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology (1095-6433) (Elsevier), 2008-05 , Vol. 150 , N. 1 , P. 1-7|
|WOS© Times Cited||17|
|Keyword(s)||Vent, Hydrothermal vent, Bathymodiolus azoricus, Aquarium acclimatization, Phagocytosis, Alcian blue Periodic Acid Schiff staining, Mucopolysaccharide|
|Abstract||The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus has been the subject of several studies aimed at understanding the physiological adaptations that vent animals have developed in order to cope with the particular physical and chemical conditions of hydrothermal environments. In spite of reports describing successful procedures to maintain vent mussels under laboratory conditions at atmospheric pressure, few studies have described the mussel's physiological state after a long period in aquaria. In the present study, we investigate changes in mucocytes and hemocytes in B. azoricus over the course of several months after deep-sea retrieval. The visualization of granules of mucopolysaccharide or glycoprotein was made possible through their inherent auto-fluorescent property and the Alcian blue-Periodic Acid Schiff staining method. The density and distribution of droplets of mucus-like granules was observed at the ventral end of lamellae during acclimatization period. The mucus-like granules were greatly reduced after 3 months and nearly absent after 6 months of aquarium conditions. Additionally, we examined the depletion of endosymbiont bacteria from gill tissues, which typically occurs within a few weeks in sea water under laboratory conditions. The physiological state of B. azoricus after 6 months of acclimatization was also examined by means of phagocytosis assays using hemocytes. Hemocytes from mussels held in aquaria up to 6 months were still capable of phagocytosis but to a lesser extent when Compared to the number of ingested yeast particles per phagocytic hemocytes from freshly collected vent mussels. We suggest that the changes in gill mucopolysaccharides and hemocyte glycoproteins, the endosymbiont abundance in gill tissues and phagocytosis are useful health criteria to assess long term maintenance of B. azoricus in aquaria. Furthermore, the laboratory set up to which vent mussels were acclimatized is an applicable system to study physiological reactions such as hemocyte immunocompetence even in the absence of the high hydrostatic pressure found at deep-sea vent sites.|