Effect of chronic ammonia exposure on growth of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles

Type Article
Date 2004
Language English
Author(s) Lemarie Gilles1, Dosdat Antoine2, Coves Denis1, Dutto GilbertORCID1, Gasset EricORCID1, Person Jeannine2
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER, Stn Expt Aquaculture, F-34250 Palavas Les Flots, France.
2 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
Source Aquaculture (0044-8486) (Elsevier), 2004 , Vol. 229 , N. 1-4 , P. 479-491
DOI 10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00392-2
WOS© Times Cited 137
Keyword(s) Plasma ammonia, Growth, Seabass, Chronic toxicity, Ammonia
Abstract Chronic effects of ammonia were studied in juvenile seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (mean weight= 11 g), exposed for 63 days to eight stable ammonia concentrations, ranging from 0.24 to 0.90 mg l(-1) unionised ammonia nitrogen (UIA-N), respectively, from 6.1 to 22.3 mg l(-1) total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N). Temperature (21.8 degreesC), pH (8.0), salinity (37.0 ppt), and oxygen concentration (over 80% saturation at the outlet) were maintained constant. Fish were fed using a self-feeder device, and they were starved during the last 8 days. Mortality of 28.9 and 42.6% occur-red within the first 8 days at the two highest UIA-N concentrations, respectively, 0.90 and 0.88 mg l(-1). From days 0 to 55, a 1.8-fold increase in weight gain was observed under the 0.90-mg l(-1) UIA-N condition, compared to a 3.4-fold increase in the control. Weight gains were negatively correlated to ambient ammonia concentrations. Weight loss, or a transient period of growth stagnation, was observed from the onset of ammonia exposure to day 13 in seabass exposed to concentrations above 0.43 mg l(-1) UIA-N. After day 13, weight gains were observed in all groups, indicating that the fish were able to adapt to increased ambient ammonia concentrations over time. By the end of the experiment, plasma ammonia levels were positively related to ambient ammonia concentrations, and oxygen consumption recorded in fasting fish was significantly dependent on ammonia concentrations. In seabass juveniles, the 0.26-mg l(-1) UIA-N concentration, under an average pH of 8.0, can be considered as a safe long-term limit conditions in seawater.
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