||After more than 20 years of research on probiotics for aquaculture, the treatment has become a reality in farms and hatcheries, mainly in those devoted to shrimp production. New insights into gut microbiota have recently offered the opportunity to reconsider the application to fish culture, still lagging behind shrimp industry in the use of probiotics.this regard. Additionally, the concept of prebiotics is emerging as another effective way of disease control in aquaculture. Prebiotics are food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth of and/or activating the metabolism of one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria in the intestinal tract. While dietary applications of prebiotics and probiotics may be combined, one or the other may also be independently administered. This commentary highlights the recent developments in our understanding of probiotics and prebiotics and provides pointers to the future.