||Huvet Arnaud, Lapegue Sylvie, Magoulas A, Boudry Pierre
||Conservation Genetics (1566-0621) (Kluwer), 2000-09 , Vol. 1 , N. 3 , P. 251-262
||Phylogeography, Population genetics, Microsatellites, Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea angulata
||The respective status of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata, and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, has long been a matter of controversy. Morphological and physiological similarities, homogeneity of allozyme allelic frequencies between populations of the two taxa and the demonstration of hybridization lead most authors to suggest that they should be regrouped within the same species. The risk of introgression and the present expansion of C. gigas aquaculture in Europe raises the question of the need for preservation of C. angulata in Europe, as only a few populations remain. We studied European and Asian populations of C. gigas and C. angulata using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers to estimate their genetic diversity and differentiation. The analysis of genetic distances and the distribution of allelic and haplotype frequencies revealed significant genetic differences between taxa, showing two clusters: (1) C. gigas French and Japanese populations and (2) C. angulata Portuguese and Taiwanese populations. The Asian origin of the Crassostrea angulata taxa is therefore confirmed. Unlike previous studies based on allozymes, significant nuclear genome differences were noted between C. angulata and C. gigas. Despite the presumed history of the introduction of C. angulata into Southern Europe, these populations did not show any significant reduction of variability compared to Taiwanese populations. Any conservation plans for European C. angulata populations should take its non-native origin into account. They represent a valuable genetic resources for European breeding program.