Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive
|Author(s)||Ferreira Joao G.1, Andersen Jesper H.2, Borja Angel3, Bricker Suzanne B.4, Camp Jordi5, Da Silva Margarida Cardoso6, Garces Esther5, Heiskanen Anna-Stiina7, Humborg Christoph8, Ignatiades Lydia9, Lancelot Christiane10, Menesguen Alain11, Tett Paul12, Hoepffner Nicolas13, Claussen Ulrich14|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Nova Lisboa, DCEA FCT, Ctr Ocean & Environm, P-2829516 Monte De Caparica, Portugal.
2 : Aarhus Univ, Natl Environm Res Inst, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
3 : AZTI Tecnalia, Div Marine Res, Pasaia, Spain.
4 : Natl Ocean Serv, NOAA, Natl Ctr Coastal Ocean Sci, Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA.
5 : CSIC, Inst Ciencies Mar, Dept Biol Marina & Ocenaog, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain.
6 : LNEC, P-1700066 Lisbon, Portugal.
7 : Ctr Marine Res, Finnish Environm Inst, Helsinki 00251, Finland.
8 : Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Balt Nest Inst, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
9 : Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, Inst Biol, Athens 15310, Greece.
10 : Univ Libre Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
11 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Dept ODE, Unite DYNECO,Lab EB, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
12 : Scottish Marine Inst, SAMS, Oban PA37 1QA, Argyll, Scotland.
13 : Joint Res Ctr, Inst Environm & Sustainabil, I-21027 Ispra, VA, Italy.
14 : Fed Environm Agcy, D-06844 Dessau Rosslau, Germany.
|Source||Estuarine Coastal And Shelf Science (0272-7714) (Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd), 2011-06 , Vol. 93 , N. 2 , P. 117-131|
|WOS© Times Cited||264|
|Keyword(s)||eutrophication, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, harmful algae, Marine, coastal, assessment methods, Europe, marine Strategy Framework Directive, water Framework Directive|
|Abstract||In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into account related legislation, and in particular the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD - 2000/60/EC), which deals with river basins, including estuaries and a narrow coastal strip, in order to examine these issues within the framework of integrated coastal zone management. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|