An integrated fish-plankton aquaculture system in brackish water

Type Article
Date 2013-02
Language English
Author(s) Gilles S.1, 10, Fargier L.2, Lazzaro X.3, Baras E.4, De Wilde Nicolas5, Drakides C.6, Amiel C.7, Rispal B., Blancheton Jean-Paul8, 9
Affiliation(s) 1 : IIAP, ISEM, IRD, UMR 226, Iquitos 99422, Peru.
2 : Univ La Rochelle, CNRS, UMR 6250, F-17000 La Rochelle, France.
3 : UMSS, ULRA, UMR BOREA 207, IRD, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
4 : ISEM, GAMET, IRD, UMR 226, F-34196 Montpellier 5, France.
5 : Tropo Farms Ltd, Osu, Accra, Ghana.
6 : Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, UMR 5569, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
7 : Univ Montpellier 2, Creufop, Stn Mediterraneenne Environm Littoral, F-34200 Sete, France.
8 : Ifremer, Lab Aquaculture Languedoc Roussillon, Stn Ifremer Palavas, F-34250 Palavas Les Flots, France.
9 : USTL, UMR ECOSYM, Montpellier, France.
10 : IRD, UMR 226, IIAP, ISEM, Iquitos 99422, Peru.
Source Animal (1751-7311) (Cambridge Univ Press), 2013-02 , Vol. 7 , N. 2 , P. 322-329
DOI 10.1017/S1751731112001279
WOS© Times Cited 5
Keyword(s) IMTA, tilapia, Chlorella, Brachionus plicatilis, photosynthetic recycling aquaculture system
Abstract Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture takes advantage of the mutualism between some detritivorous fish and phytoplankton. The fish recycle nutrients by consuming live (and dead) algae and provide the inorganic carbon to fuel the growth of live algae. In the meanwhile, algae purify the water and generate the oxygen required by fishes. Such mechanism stabilizes the functioning of an artificially recycling ecosystem, as exemplified by combining the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii and the unicellular alga Chlorella sp. Feed addition in this ecosystem results in faster fish growth but also in an increase in phytoplankton biomass, which must be limited. In the prototype described here, the algal population control is exerted by herbivorous zooplankton growing in a separate pond connected in parallel to the fish-algae ecosystem. The zooplankton production is then consumed by tilapia, particularly by the fry and juveniles, when water is returned to the main circuit. Chlorella sp. and Brachionus plicatilis are two planktonic species that have spontaneously colonized the brackish water of the prototype, which was set-up in Senegal along the Atlantic Ocean shoreline. In our system, water was entirely recycled and only evaporation was compensated (1.5% volume/day). Sediment, which accumulated in the zooplankton pond, was the only trophic cul-de-sac. The system was temporarily destabilized following an accidental rotifer invasion in the main circuit. This caused Chlorella disappearance and replacement by opportunist algae, not consumed by Brachionus. Following the entire consumption of the Brachionus population by tilapias, Chlorella predominated again. Our artificial ecosystem combining S. m. heudelotii, Chlorella and B. plicatilis thus appeared to be resilient. This farming system was operated over one year with a fish productivity of 1.85 kg/m(2) per year during the cold season (January to April).
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