Dissolved azaspiracids are absorbed and metabolized by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

Other titles Les azaspiracides dissous sont absorbés et métabolisés par les moules (Mytilus edulis)
Type Article
Date 2013-04
Language English
Author(s) Jauffrais ThierryORCID, Kilcoyne Jane, Herrenknecht Christine, Truquet Philippe, Sechet VeroniqueORCID, Miles Christopher O., Hess PhilippORCID
Affiliation(s) IFREMER, Lab EMP PHYC, F-44311 Nantes, France.
Inst Marine, Oranmore, Co Galway, Ireland.
Univ Nantes, LUNAM, Fac Pharm, MMS EA2160, F-44035 Nantes, France.
Norwegian Vet Inst, N-0106 Oslo, Norway.
Source Toxicon (0041-0101) (Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd), 2013-04 , Vol. 65 , P. 81-89
DOI 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.01.010
WOS© Times Cited 27
Keyword(s) Dissolved marine biotoxins, AZA, Tissue distribution, Bivalve molluscs, LC-MS/MS, Azaspiracid
Abstract The relationship between azaspiracid shellfish poisoning and a small dinoflagellate, Azadinium spinosum, has been shown recently. The organism produces AZA1 and -2, while AZA3 and other analogues are metabolic products formed in shellfish. We evaluated whether mussels were capable of accumulating dissolved AZA1 and -2, and compared the toxin profiles of these mussels at 24 h with profiles of those exposed to live or lysed A. spinosum. We also assessed the possibility of preparative production of AZA metabolites by exposing mussels to semi-purified AZA1.
We exposed mussels to similar concentration of AZAs: dissolved AZA1+2 (crude extract) at 7.5 and 0.75 µg L-1, dissolved AZA1+2 (7.5 µg L-1) in combination with Isochrysis affinis galbana, and lysed and live A. spinosum cells at 1 × 105 and 1 × 104 cell mL-1. Subsequently, we dissected and analysed digestive glands, gills and remaining flesh. Mussels (whole flesh) accumulated AZAs above the regulatory limit except at the lower levels of dissolved AZAs. The toxin profile of the mussels varied significantly with treatment. The gills contained 42–46% and the digestive glands 23–24% of the total toxin load using dissolved AZAs, compared to 3–12% and 75–90%, respectively, in mussels exposed to live A. spinosum. Exposure of mussels to semi-purified AZA1 produced the metabolites AZA17 (16.5%) and AZA3 (1.7%) after 4 days of exposure, but the conversion efficiency was too low to justify using this procedure for preparative isolation.
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