New evidence for the involvement of Paracartia grani (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the life cycle of Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea)

Type Article
Date 2013-12
Language English
Author(s) Boyer S.1, Chollet Bruno2, Bonnet D.1, Arzul IsabelleORCID2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Montpellier 2, Lab EcoSym, UMR5119, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
2 : IFREMER, Lab Genet & Pathol Mollusques Marins, LGPMM SG2M, F-17390 La Tremblade, France.
Source International Journal For Parasitology (0020-7519) (Elsevier Sci Ltd), 2013-12 , Vol. 43 , N. 14 , P. 1089-1099
DOI 10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.07.008
WOS© Times Cited 10
Keyword(s) Marteiliosis, Marteilia refringens, Parasite life cycle, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes decussatus, Paracartia grani, PCR, In situ hybridisation
Abstract The dynamics of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens was studied in Thau lagoon, an important French shellfish site, for 1 year in three potential hosts: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mytiliidae) the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus (Veneriidae) and the copepod Paracartia grani (Acartiidae). Parasite DNA was detected by PCR in R. decussatus. In situ hybridisation showed necrotic cells of M. refringens in the digestive epithelia of some R. decussatus suggesting the non-involvement of this species in the parasite life cycle. In contrast, the detection of M. refringens in mussels using PCR appeared bimodal with two peaks in spring and autumn. Histological observations of PCR-positive mussels revealed the presence of different parasite stages including mature sporangia in spring and autumn. These results suggest that the parasite has two cycles per year in the Thau lagoon and that mussels release parasites into the water column during these two periods. Moreover, PCR detection of the parasite in the copepodid stages of P. grani between June and November supports the hypothesis of the transmission of the parasite from mussels to copepods and conversely. In situ hybridisation performed on copepodites showed labeling in some sections. Unusual M. refringens cells were observed in the digestive tract and the gonad from the third copepodid stage, suggesting that the parasite could infect a copepod by ingestion and be released through the gonad. This hypothesis is supported by the PCR detection of parasite DNA in copepod eggs from PCR-positive females, which suggests that eggs could contribute to the parasite spreading in the water and could allow overwintering of M. refringens. Finally, in order to understand the interactions between mussels and copepods, mussel retention efficiency (number of copepods retained by a mussel) was measured for all P. grani developmental stages. Results showed that all copepod stages could contribute to the transmission of the parasite, especially eggs and nauplii which were retained by up to 90%.
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