North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states

Type Article
Date 2014-01
Language English
Author(s) Danabasoglu Gokhan1, Yeager Steve G.1, Bailey David1, Behrens Erik2, Bentsen Mats3, Bi Daohua, Biastoch Arne2, Boening Claus2, Bozec Alexandra6, Canuto Vittorio M.7, Cassou Christophe8, Chassignet Eric6, Coward Andrew C.9, Danilov Sergey10, Diansky Nikolay11, Drange Helge12, Farneti Riccardo13, Fernandez E8, Fogli Pier Giuseppe14, Forget Gael15, Fujii Yosuke16, Griffies Stephen M.17, Gusev Anatoly11, Heimbach Patrick15, Howard Armando18, Jung Thomas10, Kelley Maxwell7, Large William G.1, Leboissetier Anthony7, Lu Jianhua6, Madec G19, Marsland Simon J.4, 5, Masinam Simona14, 20, Navarram Antonio14, 20, Nurser A. J. George9, Pirani Anna21, Salas Y Melia David22, Samuels Bonita L.17, Scheinert Markus2, Sidorenko Dmitry10, Treguier Anne-Marie23, Tsujino Hiroyuki16, Uotila Petteri, Valcke Sophie, Voldoire Aurore22, Wangi Qiang10
Affiliation(s) 1 : NCAR, Boulder, CO USA.
2 : GEOMAR, Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Kiel, Germany.
3 : Uni Res Ltd, Uni Climate, Bergen, Norway.
4 : CSIRO, Ctr Australian Weather & Climate Res, Melbourne, Australia.
5 : CSIRO, Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Australia.
6 : Florida State Univ, COAPS, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
7 : NASA, Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 USA.
8 : CERFACS, Toulouse, France.
9 : NOCS, Southampton, Hants, England.
10 : Alfred Wegener Inst Polar & Marine Res AWI, Bremerhaven, Germany.
11 : Russian Acad Sci, Inst Numer Math, Moscow, Russia.
12 : Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
13 : Abdus Salaam Int Ctr Theoret Phys, Trieste, Italy.
14 : Ctr Euro Mediterraneo Cambiamenti Climatici CMCC, Bologna, Italy.
15 : MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
16 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, MRI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
17 : NOAA, GFDL, Princeton, NJ USA.
18 : CUNY Medgar Evers Coll, Brooklyn, NY 11225 USA.
19 : CNRS IRD UPMC, IPSL LOCEAN, Paris, France.
20 : INGV, Bologna, Italy.
21 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Int CLIVAR Project Off, Southampton, Hants, England.
22 : CNRM, Toulouse, France.
23 : IUEM, CNRS Ifremer IRD UBO, UMR 6523, Lab Phys Oceans, Plouzane, France.
Source Ocean Modelling (1463-5003) (Elsevier Sci Ltd), 2014-01 , Vol. 73 , P. 76-107
DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.10.005
WOS© Times Cited 285
Keyword(s) Global ocean-sea-ice modelling, Ocean model comparisons, Atmospheric forcing, Experimental design, Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, North Atlantic simulations
Abstract Simulation characteristics from eighteen global ocean–sea-ice coupled models are presented with a focus on the mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and other related fields in the North Atlantic. These experiments use inter-annually varying atmospheric forcing data sets for the 60-year period from 1948 to 2007 and are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The protocol for conducting such CORE-II experiments is summarized. Despite using the same atmospheric forcing, the solutions show significant differences. As most models also differ from available observations, biases in the Labrador Sea region in upper-ocean potential temperature and salinity distributions, mixed layer depths, and sea-ice cover are identified as contributors to differences in AMOC. These differences in the solutions do not suggest an obvious grouping of the models based on their ocean model lineage, their vertical coordinate representations, or surface salinity restoring strengths. Thus, the solution differences among the models are attributed primarily to use of different subgrid scale parameterizations and parameter choices as well as to differences in vertical and horizontal grid resolutions in the ocean models. Use of a wide variety of sea-ice models with diverse snow and sea-ice albedo treatments also contributes to these differences. Based on the diagnostics considered, the majority of the models appear suitable for use in studies involving the North Atlantic, but some models require dedicated development effort.
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Danabasoglu Gokhan, Yeager Steve G., Bailey David, Behrens Erik, Bentsen Mats, Bi Daohua, Biastoch Arne, Boening Claus, Bozec Alexandra, Canuto Vittorio M., Cassou Christophe, Chassignet Eric, Coward Andrew C., Danilov Sergey, Diansky Nikolay, Drange Helge, Farneti Riccardo, Fernandez E, Fogli Pier Giuseppe, Forget Gael, Fujii Yosuke, Griffies Stephen M., Gusev Anatoly, Heimbach Patrick, Howard Armando, Jung Thomas, Kelley Maxwell, Large William G., Leboissetier Anthony, Lu Jianhua, Madec G, Marsland Simon J., Masinam Simona, Navarram Antonio, Nurser A. J. George, Pirani Anna, Salas Y Melia David, Samuels Bonita L., Scheinert Markus, Sidorenko Dmitry, Treguier Anne-Marie, Tsujino Hiroyuki, Uotila Petteri, Valcke Sophie, Voldoire Aurore, Wangi Qiang (2014). North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states. Ocean Modelling, 73, 76-107. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.10.005 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00164/27525/