Bioaccumulation Efficiency, Tissue Distribution, and Environmental Occurrence of Hepatitis E Virus in Bivalve Shellfish from France
|Author(s)||Grodzki Marco1, Schaeffer Julien1, Piquet Jean-Come2, Le Saux Jean-Claude1, Cheve Julien3, Ollivier Joanna1, Le Pendu Jacques4, Le Guyader Soizick1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER, Lab Microbiol, LSEM SG2M, Nantes, France.
2 : IFREMER, LER PC, La Tremblade, France.
3 : IFREMER, LER BN, Dinard, France.
4 : Univ Nantes, CNRS, UMR6299, Inserm,U892, Nantes, France.
|Source||Applied And Environmental Microbiology (0099-2240) (Amer Soc Microbiology), 2014-07 , Vol. 80 , N. 14 , P. 4269-4276|
|WOS© Times Cited||46|
|Abstract||Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste.|