Large-scale spatio-temporal monitoring highlights hotspots of demersal fish diversity in the Mediterranean Sea
|Author(s)||Granger Victoria1, Fromentin Jean-Marc2, Bez Nicolas3, Relini Giulio4, Meynard Christine N.5, 6, Gaertner Jean-Claude7, Maiorano Porzia8, Garcia Ruiz Cristina9, Follesa Cristina10, Gristina Michele11, Peristeraki Panagiota12, Brind'Amour Anik13, Carbonara Pierluigi14, Charilaou Charis15, Esteban Antonio16, Jadaud Angelique2, Joksimovic Aleksandar17, Kallianiotis Argyris18, Kolitari Jerina19, Manfredi Chiara20, Massuti Enric21, Mifsud Roberta22, Quetglas Antoni21, Refes Wahid23, Sbrana Mario24, Vrgoc Nedo25, Spedicato Maria Teresa14, Merigot Bastien1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Montpellier, UMR Marine Biodivers Conservat & Exploitat MARBEC, Ctr Rech Halieut Mediterraneenne & Tropicale, F-34203 Sete, France.
2 : Ifremer, UMR Marine Biodivers Conservat & Exploitat MARBEC, Ctr Rech Halieut Mediterraneenne & Tropicale, F-34203 Sete, France.
3 : IRD, UMR Marine Biodivers Conservat & Exploitat MARBEC, Ctr Rech Halieut Mediterraneenne & Tropicale, F-34203 Sete, France.
4 : Dipartimento Sci Terra Ambiente Vita DISTIV, I-16132 Genoa, Italy.
5 : INRA, UMR Ctr Biol Gest Populat CBGP, Montferrier Sur Lez, France.
6 : Coll William & Mary, Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
7 : IRD, UMR Ecosyst Insulaire Ocean EIO 241, Papeete, Tahiti, Fr Polynesia.
8 : Univ Bari, Dept Biol, Bari, Italy.
9 : IEO, Ctr Oceanog Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
10 : Univ Cagliari, Dipartimento Biol Animale Ecol, Cagliari, Italy.
11 : Inst Coastal Marine Environm CNR, Mazara Del Vallo, Italy.
12 : Hellen Ctr Marine Res, Iraklion, NE, Greece.
13 : Ifremer, Dept Ecol & Modeles Halieut EMH, F-44311 Nantes, France.
14 : COISPA Tecnol & Ric, Stn Sperimentale Studio Risorse Mare, Bari, Italy.
15 : Minist Agr Nat Resources & Environm, Dept Fisheries & Marine Res, Nicosia, Cyprus.
16 : Ctr Oceanog Murcia, IEO, Murcia, Spain.
17 : Univ Montenegro, Inst Marine Biol, Kotor 85330, Montenegro.
18 : Natl Agr Res Fdn, Fisheries Res Inst, Kavala, Greece.
19 : Agr Univ Tirana, Aquaculture & Fishery Lab Durres, Durres, Albania.
20 : Univ Bologna, Dipto BES, Lab Biol Marina & Pesca Fano, Fano, Italy.
21 : Ctr Oceanog Baleares, IEO, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
22 : Minist Sustainable Dev, Dept Fisheries & Aquaculture, Marsa, Malta.
23 : ENSSMAL, Algiers, Algeria.
24 : Consorzio Ctr Interuniv Biol Marina & Ecol Applic, Livorno, Italy.
25 : Inst Oceanog & Fisheries, Split, Croatia.
|Source||Progress In Oceanography (0079-6611) (Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd), 2015-11 , Vol. 138 , P. 322-323|
|Abstract||Increasing human pressures and global environmental change may severely affect the diversity of species assemblages and associated ecosystem services. Despite the recent interest in phylogenetic and functional diversity, our knowledge on large spatio-temporal patterns of demersal fish diversity sampled by trawling remains still incomplete, notably in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most threatened marine regions of the world. We investigated large spatio-temporal diversity patterns by analysing a dataset of 19,886 hauls from 10 to 800 m depth performed annually during the last two decades by standardized scientific bottom trawl field surveys across the Mediterranean Sea, within the MEDITS program. A multi-component (eight diversity indices) and multi-scale (local assemblages, biogeographic regions to basins) approach indicates that only the two most traditional components (species richness and evenness) were sufficient to reflect patterns in taxonomic, phylogenetic or functional richness and divergence. We also put into question the use of widely computed indices that allow comparing directly taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity within a unique mathematical framework. In addition, demersal fish assemblages sampled by trawl do not follow a continuous decreasing longitudinal/latitudinal diversity gradients (spatial effects explained up to 70.6% of deviance in regression tree and generalized linear models), for any of the indices and spatial scales analysed. Indeed, at both local and regional scales species richness was relatively high in the Iberian region, Malta, the Eastern Ionian and Aegean seas, meanwhile the Adriatic Sea and Cyprus showed a relatively low level. In contrast, evenness as well as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional divergences did not show regional hotspots. All studied diversity components remained stable over the last two decades. Overall, our results highlight the need to use complementary diversity indices through different spatial scales when developing conservation strategies and defining delimitations for protected areas.|