The new insights into the oyster antimicrobial defense: Cellular, molecular and genetic view

Type Article
Date 2015-09
Language English
Author(s) Bachere Evelyne1, Rosa Rafael Diego1, 2, Schmitt Paulina1, 3, Poirier Aurore1, Merou Nicolas1, Charriere Guillaume1, Destoumieux-Garzon Delphine1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, UMR 5244,IHPE Interact Host Pathogen Environm UPV, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
2 : Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Dept Cell Biol Embryol & Genet, Lab Immunol Appl Aquaculture, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
3 : Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Biol, Lab Genet & Inmunol Mol, Valparaiso 2373223, Chile.
Source Fish & Shellfish Immunology (1050-4648) (Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd), 2015-09 , Vol. 46 , N. 1 , P. 50-64
DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.02.040
WOS© Times Cited 63
Note SI: Molluscan Immunity
Keyword(s) Mollusk, Immunity, Antimicrobial peptide, Hemocyte, Defensin
Abstract Oysters are sessile filter feeders that live in close association with abundant and diverse communities of microorganisms that form the oyster microbiota. In such an association, cellular and molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain oyster homeostasis upon stressful conditions including infection and changing environments. We give here cellular and molecular insights into the Crassostrea gigas antimicrobial defense system with focus on antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). This review highlights the central role of the hemocytes in the modulation and control of oyster antimicrobial response. As vehicles for AMPs and other antimicrobial effectors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), and together with epithelia, hemocytes provide the oyster with local defense reactions instead of systemic humoral ones. These reactions are largely based on phagocytosis but also, as recently described, on the extracellular release of antimicrobial histones (ETosis) which is triggered by ROS. Thus, ROS can signal danger and activate cellular responses in the oyster. From the current literature, AMP production/release could serve similar functions. We provide also new lights on the oyster genetic background that underlies a great diversity of AMP sequences but also an extraordinary individual polymorphism of AMP gene expression. We discuss here how this polymorphism could generate new immune functions, new pathogen resistances or support individual adaptation to environmental stresses.
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Bachere Evelyne, Rosa Rafael Diego, Schmitt Paulina, Poirier Aurore, Merou Nicolas, Charriere Guillaume, Destoumieux-Garzon Delphine (2015). The new insights into the oyster antimicrobial defense: Cellular, molecular and genetic view. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 46(1), 50-64. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2015.02.040 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00254/36552/