Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1–10 in Mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15
|Author(s)||Kilcoyne Jane1, McCarron Pearse2, Hess Philipp3, Miles Christopher O.4|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Inst Marine, Oranmore, Galway, Ireland.
2 : Natl Res Council Canada, Measurement Sci & Stand, Halifax, NS B3H 3Z1, Canada.
3 : IFREMER, Lab Phycotoxines, F-44311 Nantes, France.
4 : Norwegian Vet Inst, N-0106 Oslo, Norway.
|Source||Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry (0021-8561) (Amer Chemical Soc), 2015-12 , Vol. 63 , N. 51 , P. 10980-10987|
|WOS© Times Cited||9|
|Keyword(s)||azaspiracid, decarboxylation, hydroxylation, chemical conversion, heating mass spectrometry, metabolism|
|Abstract||Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1–3 (1–3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11–502%) and 6 (range, 3–170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1–27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1–21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1–27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1–8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15.|