An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part I: Sea ice and solid freshwater
|Author(s)||Wang Qiang1, Ilicak Mehmet2, Gerdes Ruediger1, Drange Helge3, Aksenov Yevgeny4, Bailey David A.5, Bentsen Mats2, Biastoch Arne6, Bozec Alexandra7, Boening Claus6, Cassou Christophe8, Chassignet Eric7, Coward Andrew C.4, Curry Beth9, Danabasoglu Gokhan5, Danilov Sergey1, Fernandez Elodie8, Fogli Pier Giuseppe10, Fujii Yosuke11, Griffies Stephen M.12, Iovino Doroteaciro10, Jahn Alexandra5, 13, 14, Jung Thomas15, Large William G.5, Lee Craig9, Lique Camille16, 17, Lu Jianhua7, Masina Simona10, 21, Nurser A. J. George4, Rabe Benjamin1, Roth Christina6, Salas Y Melia David18, Samuels Bonita L.12, Spence Paul19, 20, Tsujino Hiroyuki11, Valcke Sophie8, Voldoire Aurore18, Wang Xuezhu1, Yeager Steve G.5|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res AWI, Bremerhaven, Germany.
2 : Uni Res Ltd, Bergen, Norway.
3 : Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
4 : NOC, Southampton SO14 3ZH, Hants, England.
5 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, POB 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 USA.
6 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Kiel, Germany.
7 : Florida State Univ, COAPS, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
8 : CERFACS, Toulouse, France.
9 : Univ Washington, Appl Phys Lab, Seattle, WA 98105 USA.
10 : Ctr Euromediterrarteo Cambiamenti Climat CMCC, Bologna, Italy.
11 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, MRI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
12 : NOAA, GFDL, Princeton, NJ USA.
13 : Univ Colorado, Dept Atmospher & Ocean Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
14 : Univ Colorado, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
15 : Univ Bremen, Inst Environm Phys, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
16 : Univ Oxford, Dept Earth Sci, Oxford OX1 3PR, England.
17 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Lab Phys Oceans, Plouzane, France.
18 : CNRM, Toulouse, France.
19 : Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
20 : Univ New S Wales, ARC Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
21 : INGV, Bologna, Italy.
|Source||Ocean Modelling (1463-5003) (Elsevier Sci Ltd), 2016-03 , Vol. 99 , P. 110-132|
|WOS© Times Cited||60|
|Keyword(s)||Arctic Ocean, Sea ice, Freshwater, CORE II atmospheric forcing|
|Abstract||The Arctic Ocean simulated in fourteen global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE II) is analyzed. The focus is on the Arctic sea ice extent, the solid freshwater (FW) sources and solid freshwater content (FWC). Available observations are used for model evaluation. The variability of sea ice extent and solid FW budget is more consistently reproduced than their mean state in the models. The descending trend of September sea ice extent is well simulated in terms of the model ensemble mean. Models overestimating sea ice thickness tend to underestimate the descending trend of September sea ice extent. The models underestimate the observed sea ice thinning trend by a factor of two. When averaged on decadal time scales, the variation of Arctic solid FWC is contributed by those of both sea ice production and sea ice transport, which are out of phase in time. The solid FWC decreased in the recent decades, caused mainly by the reduction in sea ice thickness. The models did not simulate the acceleration of sea ice thickness decline, leading to an underestimation of solid FWC trend after 2000. The common model behavior, including the tendency to underestimate the trend of sea ice thickness and March sea ice extent, remains to be improved|