Symbiodinium clades A and D differentially predispose Acropora cytherea to disease and Vibrio spp. colonization

Type Article
Date 2016-01
Language English
Author(s) Rouze Heloise1, 2, Lecellier Gael1, 2, 3, Saulnier Denis2, 4, Berteaux-Lecellier Veronique1, 2
Affiliation(s) 1 : USR3278 CRIOBE CNRS EPHE UPVD, BP 1013 Papetoai, Moorea 98729, Fr Polynesia.
2 : Lab Excellence CORAIL, 58 Ave Paul Alduy, F-66860 Perpignan, France.
3 : Univ Versailles St Quentin Yvelines, 55 Ave Paris, F-78035 Versailles, France.
4 : UMR241 EIO Ifremer ILM IRD UPF, BP 7004, Taravao 98719, Fr Polynesia.
Source Ecology And Evolution (2045-7758) (Wiley-blackwell), 2016-01 , Vol. 6 , N. 2 , P. 560-572
DOI 10.1002/ece3.1895
WOS© Times Cited 22
Note Table S1. Symbiodinium subclade identification on rDNA of some coral colonies surveyed through June 2011 to August 2012. Table S2. Aligned sequences haplotypes for variable positions within the 541 bp area of the 16 rDNA gene of Vibrio, with nucleotides differences indicated in bold underline. Table S3. Values of 28S copy number quantified by qPCR and expressed by the ratio of host/symbiont for each clade A, C and D associated with A. cytherea surveyed between June 2011 and August 2012.
Keyword(s) Coral disease, dynamic, resistance, Symbiodinium assemblages, Vibrio
Abstract Coral disease outbreaks have increased over the last three decades, but their causal agents remain mostly unclear (e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists). This study details a 14-month-long survey of coral colonies in which observations of the development of disease was observed in nearly half of the sampled colonies. A bimonthly qPCR method was used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate Symbiodinium assemblages of tagged colonies, and to detect the presence of Vibrio spp. Firstly, our data showed that predisposition to disease development in general, and, more specifically, infection by Vibrio spp. in Acropora cytherea depended on which clades of Symbiodinium were harbored. In both cases, harboring clade D rather than A was beneficial to the coral host. Secondly, the detection of Vibrio spp. in only colonies that developed disease strongly suggests opportunistic traits of the bacteria. Finally, even if sporadic cases of switching and probably shuffling were observed, this long-term survey does not suggest specific-clade recruitment in response to stressors. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the fitness of the coral holobiont depends on its initial consortium of Symbiodinium, which is distinct among colonies, rather than a temporary adaptation achieved through acquiring different Symbiodinium clades.
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