Determination of thresholds in marine molluscs as an alternative to the Environmental Quality Standards in marine water defined in the Water Framework Directive
|Other titles||Détermination de seuils sur les mollusques alternatifs aux Normes de Qualité Environnementale définies dans l'eau marine dans la Directive Cadre sur l'Eau|
|Author(s)||Sire Alizee1, Amouroux Isabelle1|
|Meeting||SETAC Europe 2016 - 26th annual Meeting. 22-26 May, 2016, Nantes, France|
|Abstract||The Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) in marine water for 34 priority substances. Among these substances, 25 are hydrophobic and bioaccumulable (2 metals and 23 organic compounds). For these 25 substances, monitoring in water matrix is not appropriate and an alternative matrix should be developed. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis), are used by Ifremer as a quantitative biological indicator since 1979 in France, to assess the marine water quality. This study has been carried out in order to determine thresholds in mussels at least as protective as EQS in marine water laid down by the WFD. Three steps are defined:
- Provide an overview of knowledges about the relations between the concentrations of contaminants in the marine water and mussels through bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF). This allows to examine how a BCF or a BAF can be determined: BCF can be determined experimentally (according to US EPA or ASTM standards), or by Quantitative Activity-Structure Relationship models (QSAR): four equations can be used for mussels. BAF can be determined by field experiment; but none standards exists. It could be determined by using QSAR but this method is considered as invalid for mussels, or by using existing model: Dynamic Budget Model, but this is complex to use.
- Collect concentrations data in marine water (Cwater) in bibliography for those 25 substances; and compare them with concentration in mussels (Cmussels) obtained through French monitoring network of chemicals contaminants (ROCCH) and biological integrator network RINBIO. According to available data, this leads to determine the BAF or the BCF (Cmussels /Cwater) with field data.
- Compare BAF and BCF values (when available) obtained with various methods for these substances: BCF (stemming from the bibliography, using experimental process), BCF calculated by QSAR and BAF determined using field data.
This study points out that experimental BCF data are available for 3 substances (Chlorpyrifos, HCH, Pentachlorobenzene). BCF by QSAR can be calculated for 20 substances. The use of field data allows to evaluate 4 BAF for organic compounds and 2 BAF for metals.
Using these BAF or BCF value, thresholds in shellfish can be determined as an alternative to EQS in marine water.