Derivation of toxicity equivalency factors for marine biotoxins associated with Bivalve Molluscs
|Author(s)||Botana Luis M.1, Hess Philipp2, Munday Rex3, Nathalie Arnich4, Degrasse Stacey L.5, Feeley Mark6, Suzuki Toshiyuki7, Van Den Berg Martin8, Fattori Vittorio9, Gamarro Esther Garrido10, Tritscher Angelika11, Nakagawa Rei11, Karunasagar Iddya10|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Santiago, Fac Vet, Dept Farmacol, Lugo 27002, Spain.
2 : Inst Francais Rech Exploitat Mer IFREMER, Lab Phycotoxines DYNECO PHYC, Rue Ile Yeu,BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes 3, France.
3 : AgResearch Ltd, Ruakura Res Ctr, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand.
4 : French Agcy Food Environm & Occupat Hlth & Safety, Risk Assessment Dept, Maisons Alfort, France.
5 : US FDA, Ctr Food Safety & Appl Nutr, 5001 Campus Dr, College Pk, MD 20740 USA.
6 : Hlth Canada, Bur Chem Safety, Food Directorate, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
7 : Fisheries Res Agcy, Natl Res Inst Fisheries Sci, Kanazawa Ku, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2368648, Japan.
8 : Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands.
9 : Food & Agr Org United Nations, Agr & Consumer Protect Dept, Rome, Italy.
10 : Food & Agr Org United Nations, Dept Fisheries & Aquaculture, Rome, Italy.
11 : WHO, Dept Food Safety & Zoonoses, Geneva, Switzerland.
|Source||Trends In Food Science & Technology (0924-2244) (Elsevier Science London), 2017-01 , Vol. 59 , P. 15-24|
|WOS© Times Cited||37|
|Keyword(s)||Marine toxins, Toxicity Equivalency Factors, FAO, WHO, Bivalve, Mollusc|
|Abstract||BackgroundSeafood toxins pose an important risk to human health, and maximum levels were imposed by regulatory authorities throughout the world. Several toxin groups are known, each one with many analogues of the major toxin. Regulatory limits are set to ensure that commercially available seafood is not contaminated with unsafe levels.
Scope and ApproachThe mouse bioassay was used to measure the toxicity in seafood extracts to determine if a sample exceeded regulatory limits. The advantage of this approach was to provide an estimation of the total toxicity in the sample. As instrumental methods of analysis advance and serve as replacements to the mouse bioassay, the challenge is translating individual toxin concentrations into toxicity to determine whether regulatory limits have been exceeded. Such analyses provide accurate quantitation of the toxin analogues, by they have widely dissimilar potencies. Thus, knowledge of the relative toxicities is required for risk assessment and determining overall toxicity. The ratios between the toxicity of the analogues and that of a reference compound within the same toxin group are termed “Toxicity Equivalency Factors” (TEFs).Key Findings and Conclusions: In this document, the requirements for determining TEFs of toxin analogues are described, and recommendations for research to further refine TEFs are identified. The proposed TEFs herein, when applied to toxin analogue concentrations determined using analytical methods, will provide a base to determine overall toxicity, thereby protecting human health.