Assessing spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton communities' composition in the Iroise Sea ecosystem (Brittany, France): A 3D modeling approach: Part 2: Linking summer mesoscale distribution of phenotypic diversity to hydrodynamism
|Author(s)||Cadier Mathilde1, Sourisseau Marc2, Gorgues Thomas3, Edwards Christopher A.4, Memery Laurent1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : UMR CNRS IFREMER IRD UBO, Lab Sci Environm Marin, Plouzane, France.
2 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Dept Dynam Environm Cotier PELAGOS, Plouzane, France.
3 : UMR CNRS IFREMER IRD UBO, IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale, Plouzane, France.
4 : Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Inst Marine Sci, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
|Source||Journal Of Marine Systems (0924-7963) (Elsevier Science Bv), 2017-05 , Vol. 169 , P. 111-126|
|WOS© Times Cited||4|
|Keyword(s)||Plankton functional traits, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Local adaptation, Dynamical transport, Tidal front|
|Abstract||Tidal front ecosystems are especially dynamic environments usually characterized by high phytoplankton biomass and high primary production. However, the description of functional microbial diversity occurring in these regions remains only partially documented. In this article, we use a numerical model, simulating a large number of phytoplankton phenotypes to explore the three-dimensional spatial patterns of phytoplankton abundance and diversity in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany). Our results suggest that, in boreal summer, a seasonally marked tidal front shapes the phytoplankton species richness. A diversity maximum is found in the surface mixed layer located slightly west of the tidal front (i.e., not strictly co-localized with high biomass concentrations) which separates tidally mixed from stratified waters. Differences in phenotypic composition between sub-regions with distinct hydrodynamic regimes (defined by vertical mixing, nutrients gradients and light penetration) are discussed. Local growth and/or physical transport of phytoplankton phenotypes are shown to explain our simulated diversity distribution. We find that a large fraction (64%) of phenotypes present during the considered period of September are ubiquitous, found in the frontal area and on both sides of the front (i.e., over the full simulated domain). The frontal area does not exhibit significant differences between its community composition and that of either the well-mixed region or an offshore Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM). Only three phenotypes (out of 77) specifically grow locally and are found at substantial concentration only in the surface diversity maximum. Thus, this diversity maximum is composed of a combination of ubiquitous phenotypes with specific picoplankton deriving from offshore, stratified waters (including specific phenotypes from both the surface and the DCM) and imported through physical transport, completed by a few local phenotypes. These results are discussed in light of the three-dimensional general circulation at frontal interfaces. Processes identified by this study are likely to be common in tidal front environments and may be generalized to other shallow, tidally mixed environments worldwide.|