Abundant toxin-related genes in the genomes of beneficial symbionts from deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels
|Author(s)||Sayavedra Lizbeth1, Kleiner Manuel1, Ponnudurai Ruby2, Wetzel Silke1, Pelletier Eric3, 4, 11, Barbe Valerie3, Satoh Nori5, Shoguchi Eiichi5, Fink Dennis1, Breusing Corinna6, Reusch Thorsten B. H.6, Rosenstiel Philip7, Schilhabel Markus B.7, Becher Doerte8, 9, Schweder Thomas2, 8, Markert Stephanie2, 8, Dubilier Nicole1, 10, Petersen Jillian M.1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Bremen, Germany.
2 : Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Pharm, Greifswald, Germany.
3 : Commissariat Energie Atom & Energies Alternat, Genoscope Ctr Natl Sequencage, Evry, France.
4 : Commissariat Energie Atom & Energies Alternat, Metab Genom Grp, Evry, France.
5 : Okinawa Inst Sci & Technol, Marine Genom Unit, Onna, Japan.
6 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Evolutionary Ecol, Kiel, Germany.
7 : Inst Clin Mol Biol, Kiel, Germany.
8 : Inst Marine Biotechnol, Greifswald, Germany.
9 : Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Microbiol, Greifswald, Germany.
10 : Univ Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
11 : Univ Evry Val dEssonne, Evry, France.
|Source||Elife (2050-084X) (Elife Sciences Publications Ltd), 2015-09 , Vol. 4 , N. e07966 , P. 1-39|
|WOS© Times Cited||37|
Bathymodiolus mussels live in symbiosis with intracellular sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) bacteria that provide them with nutrition. We sequenced the SOX symbiont genomes from two Bathymodiolus species. Comparison of these symbiont genomes with those of their closest relatives revealed that the symbionts have undergone genome rearrangements, and up to 35% of their genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Many of the genes specific to the symbionts were homologs of virulence genes. We discovered an abundant and diverse array of genes similar to insecticidal toxins of nematode and aphid symbionts, and toxins of pathogens such as Yersinia and Vibrio. Transcriptomics and proteomics revealed that the SOX symbionts express the toxin-related genes (TRGs) in their hosts. We hypothesize that the symbionts use these TRGs in beneficial interactions with their host, including protection against parasites. This would explain why a mutualistic symbiont would contain such a remarkable 'arsenal' of TRGs.