The Solomon Sea: its circulation, chemistry, geochemistry and biology explored during two oceanographic cruises

Type Article
Date 2017-06
Language English
Author(s) Ganachaud Alexandre1, Cravatte SophieORCID1, 2, Sprintall Janet3, Germineaud Cyril1, Alberty Marion3, Jeandel Catherine1, Eldin Gerard1, Metzl Nicolas5, Bonnet Sophie4, Benavides Mar4, Heimburger Lars-Eric4, Lefevre Jerome2, Michael Susanna6, 7, Resing Joseph6, 7, Queroue Fabien8, Sarthou Geraldine8, Rodier Martine9, Berthelot Hugo4, Baurand Francois10, Grelet Jacques10, Hasegawa Takuya11, Kessler William12, Kilepak Moyep13, Lacan Francois1, Privat Emilien1, Send Uwe, Van Beek Pieter1, Souhaut Marc1, Sonke Jeroen E.14
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Toulouse, CNRS, LEGOS, CNES,IRD, Toulouse, France.
2 : CNRS, LEGOS, IRD, UPS,CNES,UMR5566, Noumea, New Caledonia.
3 : Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
4 : Univ Toulon & Var, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Mediterranean Inst Oceanog,INSU,IRD,UM 110, Noumea, New Caledonia.
5 : Univ Paris 06, UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,IRD,MNHN,LOCEAN,IPSL, Paris, France.
6 : Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Oceans, Seattle, WA USA.
7 : Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
8 : CNRS, IFREMER, IUEM,Technopole Brest Iroise, IRD,UBO,LEMAR,UMR 6539,Lab Sci Environm Marin, Pl Nicolas Copern, Plouzane, France.
9 : Univ Polynesie Francaise, Inst Malarme Ifremer, UMR IRD, Ctr IRD Tahiti,Ecosyst Insulaires Oceaniens, Faaa, French Polynesi, France.
10 : Ctr IFREMER, IRD, US IMAGO, Plouzane, France.
11 : Japan Agcy Marine Earth Sci & Technol, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.
12 : NOAA, Pacific Marine Environm Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way Ne, Seattle, WA 98115 USA.
13 : Univ Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby, Papua N Guinea.
14 : Univ Toulouse, CNRS, CNES, GET,UMR5563,IRD,UPS, Toulouse, France.
Source Elementa-science Of The Anthropocene (2325-1026) (Univ California Press), 2017-06 , Vol. 5 , N. 33 , P. 1-27
DOI 10.1525/elementa.221
WOS© Times Cited 12
Note The supplemental files for this article can be found as follows: Figure S1. Same as Figure 2 but for the Southwest Pacific. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s1 Figures S2. Same as Figure 4 but for the Southwest Pacific. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s2 Figures S3. Same as Figure 5 but for the Southwest Pacific. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s3 Figures S4. Same as Figure 7c, d but for the deep layers, from the shipboard ADCPs. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s4 Figures S5. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity section along 163E. White lines indicate isopycnals, dissolved oxygen and nitrate phosphate (no data available following a problem in the measurement system) and silicate. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s5 Figures S6. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity section east and inside Indispensable Strait, dissolved oxygen and nitrate, phosphate and silicate. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s6 Figures S7. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity section in the south entrance of the Solomon Sea dissolved oxygen and nitrate phosphate and silicate. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s7 Figures S8. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity section from Misima to Gizo islands dissolved oxygen and nitrate phosphate and silicate. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s8 Figures S9. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity section along the Solomon Strait and east Bougainville Island dissolved oxygen and nitrate phosphate and silicate. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s9 Figures S10. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity meridional section east of New Britain dissolved oxygen and nitrate phosphate and silicate. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221.s10 Figures S11. (Upper) potential temperature and (lower) salinity section along 152E dissolved oxygen and nitrate ph
Abstract

The semi-enclosed Solomon Sea in the southwestern tropical Pacific is on the pathway of a major oceanic circuit connecting the subtropics to the equator via energetic western boundary currents. Waters transiting through this area replenish the Pacific Warm Pool and ultimately feed the equatorial current system, in particular the equatorial undercurrent. In addition to dynamical transformations, water masses undergo nutrient and micronutrient enrichment when coming in contact with the coasts, impacting the productivity of the downstream equatorial region. Broadscale observing systems are not well suited for describing the fine-scale currents and water masses properties in the Solomon Sea, leaving it relatively unexplored. Two multidisciplinary oceanographic cruises were conducted in the Solomon Sea region, the first in July–August 2012 and the second in March 2014, by investigators from France and the United States. The experimental approach combined physical, chemical, geochemical and biogeochemical analyses, providing access to a wide range of space and time scales of the circulation. This collection of data allows describing the fine-scale structure of the currents and the water properties, transformations and mixing from the surface to the sill depth in the Solomon Sea and in the straits connecting it to the equator. Ocean-margin exchanges were documented through a comprehensive sampling of trace elements and isotopes as efficient tracers of natural fertilization processes. As air chemistry is largely impacted by the regional volcanic plumes, rainwater pH was also sampled. Dinitrogen fixation rates were measured and found to be among the highest in the global ocean, highlighting this region as a hot spot of nitrogen fixation. This study provides an overview of the climatic context during both cruises and the physical circulation and water masses properties. It provides a comprehensive description of all measurements made onboard, and presents preliminary results, aiming to serve as a reference for further physical, geochemical and biogeochemical studies. 

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Ganachaud Alexandre, Cravatte Sophie, Sprintall Janet, Germineaud Cyril, Alberty Marion, Jeandel Catherine, Eldin Gerard, Metzl Nicolas, Bonnet Sophie, Benavides Mar, Heimburger Lars-Eric, Lefevre Jerome, Michael Susanna, Resing Joseph, Queroue Fabien, Sarthou Geraldine, Rodier Martine, Berthelot Hugo, Baurand Francois, Grelet Jacques, Hasegawa Takuya, Kessler William, Kilepak Moyep, Lacan Francois, Privat Emilien, Send Uwe, Van Beek Pieter, Souhaut Marc, Sonke Jeroen E. (2017). The Solomon Sea: its circulation, chemistry, geochemistry and biology explored during two oceanographic cruises. Elementa-science Of The Anthropocene, 5(33), 1-27. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.221 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00390/50185/