Long-lasting antiviral innate immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

Type Article
Date 2017-10
Language English
Author(s) Lafont Maxime1, 2, Petton BrunoORCID3, Vergnes Agnes1, Pauletto Marianna4, Segarra Amelie5, Gourbal Benjamin2, Montagnani CarolineORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Montpellier, Univ Perpignan, CNRS, Ifremer,IHPE,UMR 5244, Via Domitia, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
2 : Univ Montpellier, Univ Perpignan, CNRS, IFREMER,IHPE UMR 5244, Via Domitia, F-66860 Perpignan, France.
3 : IFREMER, LEMAR UMR6539, F-29840 Argenton En Landunvez, France.
4 : Univ Padua, Dept Comparat Biomed & Food Sci, Viale Univ 16, I-35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy.
5 : Univ Brest Occidentale, LEMAR UMR CNRS UBO IRD Ifremer 6539, Inst Univ Europeen Mer, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
Source Scientific Reports (2045-2322) (Nature Publishing Group), 2017-10 , Vol. 7 , N. 13143 , P. 1-14
DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-13564-0
WOS© Times Cited 44

In the last decade, a paradigm shift has emerged in comparative immunology. Invertebrates can no longer be considered to be devoid of specific recognition and immune memory. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of these phenomena and their molecular mechanisms across phyla, especially in terms of duration, specificity, and efficiency in a natural context. In this study, we focused on a Lophotrochozoan/virus interaction, as antiviral priming is mostly overlooked in molluscs. Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing therapeutic treatment. Our results showed that various nucleic acid injections can prime oysters to trigger an antiviral state ultimately protecting them against a subsequent viral infection. Focusing on poly(I:C) as elicitor, we evidenced that it protected from an environmental infection, by mitigating viral replication. That protection seemed to induce a specific antiviral response as poly(I:C) fails to protect against a pathogenic bacteria. Finally, we showed that this phenomenon was long-lasting, persisting for at least 5 months thus suggesting for the first time the existence of innate immune memory in this invertebrate species. This study strengthens the emerging hypotheses about the broad conservation of innate immune priming and memory mechanisms in Lophotrochozoans.

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