Joint effects of nine antidepressants on Raphidocelis subcapitata and Skeletonema marinoi : a matter of amine functional groups
|Author(s)||Minguez Laetitia1, 2, Bureau Ronan1, Halm-Lemeille Marie-Pierre1, 3|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Caen Basse Normandie, UFR Sci Pharmaceut, CERMN, UPRES EA4258,FR CNRS M INC3,SF ICORE 4206, Bd Becquerel, F-14032 Caen, France.
2 : Univ Lorraine, CNRS UMR 7360, LIEC, Campus Bridoux,Rue Gen Delestraint, F-57070 Metz, France.
3 : IFREMER, Stn Port en Bessin, LER, Ave Gen Gaulle BP 32, F-14520 Port En Bessin, France.
|Source||Aquatic Toxicology (0166-445X) (Elsevier Science Bv), 2018-03 , Vol. 196 , P. 117-123|
|WOS© Times Cited||11|
|Keyword(s)||Green algae, Diatom, Mixture, Pharmaceutical, QSAR|
Antidepressants are among the most prescribed pharmaceuticals throughout the world. Their presence has already been detected in several aquatic ecosystems worldwide and their effects on non-target organisms justify the growing concern of both the public and regulatory authorities. These emerging pollutants do not occur as isolated compounds but rather as multi-component mixtures, which may lead to increased adverse effects compared to individual compounds. Freshwater and marine algae seem particularly sensitive to pharmaceuticals, including antidepressants. Studies assessing the toxicity of antidepressant mixture to algae focused mainly on binary mixtures of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In the present experiment, the freshwater algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi were exposed to equitoxic mixtures of 9 antidepressants (fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, duloxetine, venlafaxine, clomipramine, amitriptyline, and citalopram) at different concentrations. The growth inhibition was measured.
Results showed that the toxicity of this mixture was higher than the effects of each individual component, highlighting simple additivity or synergistic effects, whereas tested concentrations were below the 10% inhibition concentration (IC10) of each compound. Moreover, the QSAR analysis highlighted that antidepressants would act through narcosis (non-specific mode of action) towards the two species of algae. However, more specific effects can be observed by differentiating compounds with a primary/secondary amine from those with a tertiary amine. These mixture effects on algal species have to be assessed, especially since any impacts on phytoplankton could ultimately impact higher trophic levels (less food, secondary poisoning).