Influence of water temperature and food on the last stages of cultured pearl mineralization from the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera
|Author(s)||Latchere Oihana1, 2, Mehn Vincent1, Gaertner-Mazouni Nabila2, Le Moullac Gilles1, Fievet Julie1, Belliard Corinne1, Cabral Philippe3, Saulnier Denis1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER, Ctr Pacifique, Labex Corail, UMR Ecosyst Insulaires Oceaniens 241, Tahiti, French Polynesi, France.
2 : Univ Polynesie Francaise, Labex Corail, UMR Ecosyst Insulaires Oceaniens 241, Faaa, French Polynesi, Fr Polynesia.
3 : Gauguins Pearl Farm, Rangiroa, French Polynesi, France.
|Source||Plos One (1932-6203) (Public Library Science), 2018-03 , Vol. 13 , N. 3 , P. e0193863 (19p.)|
|WOS© Times Cited||3|
Environmental parameters, such as food level and water temperature, have been shown to be major factors influencing pearl oyster shell growth and molecular mechanisms involved in this biomineralization process. The present study investigates the effect of food level (i.e., microalgal concentration) and water temperature, in laboratory controlled conditions, on the last stages of pearl mineralization in order to assess their impact on pearl quality. To this end, grafted pearl oysters were fed at different levels of food and subjected to different water temperatures one month prior to harvest to evaluate the effect of these factors on 1) pearl and shell deposition rate, 2) expression of genes involved in biomineralization in pearl sacs, 3) nacre ultrastructure (tablet thickness and number of tablets deposited per day) and 4) pearl quality traits. Our results revealed that high water temperature stimulates both shell and pearl deposition rates. However, low water temperature led to thinner nacre tablets, a lower number of tablets deposited per day and impacted pearl quality with better luster and fewer defects. Conversely, the two tested food level had no significant effects on shell and pearl growth, pearl nacre ultrastructure or pearl quality. However, one gene, Aspein, was significantly downregulated in high food levels. These results will be helpful for the pearl industry. A wise strategy to increase pearl quality would be to rear pearl oysters at a high water temperature to increase pearl growth and consequently pearl size; and to harvest pearls after a period of low water temperature to enhance luster and to reduce the number of defects.