The overexploitation of East Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna (ABFTE) stock has been considered as an archetype of overfishing and general mismanagement of national and international fisheries bodies. The crisis highlighted, among other things, the fact that uncertainties that are inherent to any scientific advice can be used in lobbying to attempt to discredit science-based management. It also showed how interactions between science and management can change through time according to public awareness and opinion. This long and highly publicized crisis finally came to an end, in 2009, when ICCAT, under the pressure of NGOs and public opinion, fully endorsed the scientific advice within a rebuilding plan. Nowadays, the ABFTE stock is recovering, even more quickly than expected, although uncertainties involved in current scientific advice do not allow the precise quantification of the level of this recovery. Despite this, the case of the ABFTE stock clearly demonstrates that the effective management of international fisheries that exploit highly valuable species and have been overexploited for decades is still possible when there is strong political will.