Recent multivariate changes in the North Atlantic climate system, with a focus on 2005-2016
|Author(s)||Robson Jon1, Sutton Rowan T.1, Archibald Alex2, Cooper Fenwick3, Christensen Matthew3, 4, Gray Lesley J.3, Holliday N. Penny5, Macintosh Claire6, McMillan Malcolm7, Moat Ben5, Russo Maria2, Tilling Rachel7, Carslaw Ken8, Desbruyeres Damien5, 9, Embury Owen6, Feltham Daniel L., Grosvenor Daniel P.10, Josey Simon5, King Brian5, Lewis Alastair11, McCarthy Gerard D.5, 12, Merchant Chris6, New Adrian L.5, O'Reilly Christopher H.3, Osprey Scott M.3, Read Katie11, Scaife Adam14, Shepherd Andrew7, Sinha Bablu5, Smeed David5, Smith Doug13, Ridout Andrew15, Woollings Tim3, Yang Mingxi16|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Natl Ctr Atmospher Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
2 : Univ Cambridge, Dept Chem, Natl Ctr Atmospher Sci, Cambridge, England.
3 : Univ Oxford, Atmosphere Ocean & Planetary Phys, Oxford, England.
4 : STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Oxford, England.
5 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
6 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Natl Ctr Earth Observat, Reading, Berks, England.
7 : Univ Leeds, Ctr Polar Observat & Modelling, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England.
8 : Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Natl Ctr Atmospher Sci, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England.
9 : IFREMER, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale, Plouzane, France.
10 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Ctr Polar Observat & Modelling, Reading, Berks, England.
11 : Univ York, Natl Ctr Atmospher Sci, York, N Yorkshire, England.
12 : Natl Univ Ireland Maynooth, Dept Geog, Irish Climate Anal & Res UnitS ICARUS, Maynooth, Kildare, Ireland.
13 : Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
14 : Univ Exeter, Coll Engn Maths & Phys Sci, Exeter, Devon, England.
15 : UCL, Ctr Polar Observat & Modelling, London, England.
16 : Plymouth Marine Lab, Plymouth, Devon, England.
|Source||International Journal Of Climatology (0899-8418) (Wiley), 2018-11 , Vol. 38 , N. 14 , P. 5050-5076|
|WOS© Times Cited||3|
|Keyword(s)||atmosphere, atmospheric composition, cryosphere, observations, ocean, north atlantic|
Major changes are occurring across the North Atlantic climate system, including in the atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere, and many observed changes are unprecedented in instrumental records. As the changes in the North Atlantic directly affect the climate and air quality of the surrounding continents, it is important to fully understand how and why the changes are taking place, not least to predict how the region will change in the future. To this end, this article characterizes the recent observed changes in the North Atlantic region, especially in the period 2005–2016, across many different aspects of the system including: atmospheric circulation; atmospheric composition; clouds and aerosols; ocean circulation and properties; and the cryosphere. Recent changes include: an increase in the speed of the North Atlantic jet stream in winter; a southward shift in the North Atlantic jet stream in summer, associated with a weakening summer North Atlantic Oscillation; increases in ozone and methane; increases in net absorbed radiation in the mid‐latitude western Atlantic, linked to an increase in the abundance of high level clouds and a reduction in low level clouds; cooling of sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre, concomitant with increases in the western subtropical gyre, and a decline in the Atlantic Ocean's overturning circulation; a decline in Atlantic sector Arctic sea ice and rapid melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. There are many interactions between these changes, but these interactions are poorly understood. This article concludes by highlighting some of the key outstanding questions.