Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Wangodinium sinense gen. et sp. nov. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) and revisiting of Gymnodinium dorsalisulcum and Gymnodinium impudicum
|Author(s)||Luo Zhaohe1, Hu Zhangxi2, Tang Yingzhong2, Mertens Kenneth3, Leaw Chui Pin4, Lim Po Teen4, Teng Sing Tung5, Wang Lei1, Gu Haifeng1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : SOA, Inst Oceanog 3, Xiamen 361005, Peoples R China.
2 : Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, CAS Key Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China.
3 : IFREMER, LER BO, Stn Biol Marine, Pl Croix,BP40537, F-29185 Concarneau, France.
4 : Univ Malaya, Inst Ocean & Earth Sci, Bachok Marine Res Stn, Bachok 16310, Kelantan, Malaysia.
5 : Univ Malaysia Sarawak, Fac Resource Sci & Technol, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia.
|Source||Journal Of Phycology (0022-3646) (Wiley), 2018-10 , Vol. 54 , N. 5 , P. 744-761|
|WOS© Times Cited||11|
|Keyword(s)||apical structure complex, cyst, dinoflagellate, Lepidodinium, nuclear chambers, pigment, pyrenoid, ultrastructure|
The genus Gymnodinium includes many morphologically similar species, but molecular phylogenies show that it is polyphyletic. Eight strains of Gymnodinium impudicum, Gymnodinium dorsalisulcum and a novel Gymnodinium‐like species from Chinese and Malaysian waters and the Mediterranean Sea were established. All of these strains were examined with LM, SEM and TEM. SSU, LSU and internal transcribed spacers rDNA sequences were obtained. A new genus, Wangodinium, was erected to incorporate strains with a loop‐shaped apical structure complex (ASC) comprising two rows of amphiesmal vesicles, here referred to as a new type of ASC. The chloroplasts of Wangodinium sinense are enveloped by two membranes. Pigment analysis shows that peridinin is the main accessory pigment in W. sinense. Wangodinium differs from other genera mainly in its unique ASC, and additionally differs from Gymnodinium in the absence of nuclear chambers, and from Lepidodinium in the absence of Chl b and nuclear chambers. New morphological information was provided for G. dorsalisulcum and G. impudicum, e.g., a short sulcal intrusion in G. dorsalisulcum; nuclear chambers in G. impudicum and G. dorsalisulcum; and a chloroplast enveloped by two membranes in G. impudicum. Molecular phylogeny was inferred using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference with independent SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Our results support the classification of Wangodinium within the Gymnodiniales sensu stricto clade and it is close to Lepidodinium. Our results also support the close relationship among G. dorsalisulcum, G. impudicum and Barrufeta. Further research is needed to assign these Gymnodinium species to Barrufeta or to erect new genera.