Integrating spatial indicators in the surveillance of exploited marine ecosystems
|Author(s)||Rufino Marta1, 2, Bez Nicolas3, Brind'Amour Anik1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER, French Res Inst Exploitat Sea, Ctr Atlantique, Dept Ecol & Modeles Halieut EMH, Issy Les Moulineaux, France.
2 : Univ Algarve, Ctr Ciencias Mar CCMAR, Campus Gambelas, Faro, Portugal.
3 : Univ Montpellier, MARBEC, IRD, CNRS,Ifremer, Sete, France.
|Source||Plos One (1932-6203) (Public Library Science), 2018-11 , Vol. 13 , N. 11 , P. e0207538 (21p.)|
Spatial indicators are used to quantify the state of species and ecosystem status, that is the impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes, as well as to comprehend species ecology. These metrics are thus, determinant to the stakeholder’s decisions on the conservation measures to be implemented. A detailed review of the literature (55 papers) showed that 18 spatial indicators were commonly used in marine ecology. Those indicators were than characterized and studied in detail, based on its application to empirical data (a time series of 35 marine species spatial distributions, sampled either with a random stratified survey or a regular transects surveys). The results suggest that the indicators can be grouped into three classes, that summarize the way the individuals occupy space: occupancy (the area occupied by a species), aggregation (spreading or concentration of species biomass) and quantity dependent (indicators correlated with biomass), whether these are spatially explicit (include the geographic coordinates, e.g. center of gravity) or not. Indicator’s temporal variability was lower than between species variability and no clear effect was observed in relation to sampling design. Species were then classified accordingly to their indicators. One indicator was selected from each of the three categories of indicators, to represent the main axes of species spatial behavior and to interpret them in terms of occupancy-aggregation-quantity relationships. All species considered were then classified according to their relationships among those three axes, into species that under increasing abundancy, primarily increase occupancy or aggregation or both. We suggest to use these relationships along the three-axes as surveillance diagrams to follow the yearly evolution of species distributional patterns in the future.