Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda)

Type Article
Date 2015-10
Language English
Author(s) Fedosov Alexander1, 2, Puillandre Nicolas2, Kantor YuriORCID1, 2, Bouchet Philippe2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Russian Acad Sci, AN Severtsov Inst Ecol & Evolut, Moscow 119071, Russia.
2 : Univ Paris 04, Museum Natl Hist Nat, CNRS,UPMC,EPHE, Inst Systemat,Evol,Biodiversite ISYEB,UMR 7205,MN, F-75005 Paris, France.
Source Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society (0024-4082) (Wiley-blackwell), 2015-10 , Vol. 175 , N. 2 , P. 336-359
DOI 10.1111/zoj.12278
WOS© Times Cited 17
Keyword(s) Costellariidae, marine molluscs, Mitra, Mitridae, Ptychatractidae, radula, Vexillum, Volutomitridae

With about 800 Recent species, 'miters' are a widely distributed group of tropical and subtropical gastropods that are most diverse in the Indo-West Pacific. They include the two families Mitridae and Costellariidae, similar in shell morphology and traditionally treated as close relatives. Some genera of deep-water Ptychatractidae and Volutomitridae are close to miters in shell morphology, and the term 'mitriform gastropods' has been introduced to refer to Mitridae, Costellariidae, and this assortment of convergent forms. The present study aimed at the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of mitriform gastropods based on representative taxon sampling. Four genetic markers [cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S and 12S rRNA mitochondrial genes, and H3 (Histone 3) nuclear gene] were sequenced for over 90 species in 20 genera, and the molecular data set was supplemented by studies of radula morphology. Our analysis recovered Mitridae as a monophyletic group, whereas the genus Mitra was found to be polyphyletic. Of 42 mitrid species included in the analysis, 37 formed a well-supported 'core Mitridae' consisting of four major clades, three of them consistent with the subfamilies Cylindromitrinae, Imbricariinae, and Mitrinae, and Strigatella paupercula standing out by itself. Basal to the 'core Mitridae' are four minor lineages, with the genus Charitodoron recognized as sister group to all other Mitridae. The deep-water family Pyramimitridae shows a sister relationship to the Mitridae, with high support for a Pyramimitridae + Mitridae clade. Our results recover the monophyly of the Costellariidae, which form a well-supported clade that also includes Ptychatractidae, Columbariinae, and Volutomitridae, but not Mitridae. Most derived and diverse amongst Costellariidae are species of Vexillum, characterized by a bow-shaped, multicuspidate rachidian tooth. Several previously unrecognized deep-water costellariid lineages are revealed. Their members retain some plesiomorphies - in particular a tricuspidate rachidian tooth - that makes them morphologically intermediate between ptychatractids and Vexillum. The taxa of Ptychatractidae included in the analysis are not monophyletic, but form three well- supported, unrelated groupings, corresponding respectively to Ceratoxancus + Latiromitra, Exilia, and Exiliodea. None of them shows an affinity to Pseudolividae.

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