Taxonomic revision, phylogeny, and cyst wall composition of the dinoflagellate cyst genus Votadinium Reid (Dinophyceae, Peridiniales, Protoperidiniaceae)
|Author(s)||Gurdebeke Pieter R.1, Mertens Kenneth2, Pospelova Vera3, Matsuoka Kazumi4, Li Zhen3, Gribble Kristin E.5, Gu Haifeng6, Bogus Kara7, 8, Vrielinck Henk9, Louwye Stephen1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.;
2 : Ifremer, LER BO, Station de Biologie Marine, Place de la Croix, BP40537, F-29185 Concarneau CEDEX, France.;
3 : School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada.;
4 : Institute for East China Sea Research (ECSER), 1551-7, Taira-machi, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan;
5 : Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, USA.;
6 : Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, 361005, China;
7 : International Ocean Discovery Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77845, USA.;
8 : Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, UK TR10 9EZ.;
9 : Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S1, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.
|Source||Palynology (0191-6122) (Informa UK Limited), 2020-04 , Vol. 44 , N. 2 , P. 310-335|
|WOS© Times Cited||7|
|Keyword(s)||taxonomy, dual nomenclature, dinoflagellate cyst, ornamentation, micro-FTIR, cyst wall composition, sporopollenin|
The taxonomy of the dinoflagellate cyst-based genus Votadinium has been in need of revision. This was accomplished here by integrating morphology, LSU rDNA sequences, and cyst wall composition analyses through micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three new species, Votadinium pontifossatum, V. rhomboideum and V. reidii, were described as cyst stages of Protoperidinium paraoblongum, P. quadrioblongum, and P. steidingerae, respectively. A previously undescribed type of ornamentation was reported for V. pontifossatum. A fourth new species was assigned to V. concavum. Furthermore, Lejeunecysta psilodora Benedek (=Lejeunecysta psuchra Matsuoka), was re-described as V. psilodora and the holotype re-illustrated, as was done for the holotype of V. spinosum Reid. New illustrations were provided for V. elongatum and V. nanhaiense. LSU rDNA sequences of V. concavum revealed its placement in the Oceanica section of the genus Protoperidinium, supporting earlier evidence that the Oceanica section and the cyst based genus Votadinium form a monophyletic clade. Thus, Votadinium could be considered the cyst equivalent of the motile-defined Oceanica section. The cyst walls of Votadinium spinosum, V. calvum and V. pontifossatum are built from carbohydrate-based macromolecules with N-containing functional groups in agreement with the heterotrophic nature of their motile stage. Comparison with related genera Trinovantedinium and Quinquecuspis reveals that the species and genera can be separated based on cyst wall composition, supporting the phylogeny based on molecular data and/or ecological differences. Furthermore, Trinovantedinium applanatum spectra unexpectedly show an additional absorption at 1510 cm−1 indicating an aromatic group that is commonly reported for sporopollenin and not seen in dinoflagellate cysts so far. This study stabilizes the taxonomy of the cyst genus Votadinium, clarifies its relationship to the Oceanica section of Protoperidinium, and further supports the application of whole cyst wall chemistry in helping address problems in dinoflagellate cyst taxonomy and ecology.