Globally Consistent Quantitative Observations of Planktonic Ecosystems

Type Article
Date 2019-04
Language English
Author(s) Lomnard Fabien1, 2, Boss Emmanuel3, Waite Anya M.4, Vogt Meike5, Uitz Julia1, Stemman Lars1, Sosik Heidi M.6, Schulz Jan7, Romagnan Jean-Baptiste8, Picheral Marc1, Pearlman Jay9, Ohman Mark D10, Niehoff Barbara11, Möller Klas O12, Miloslavich Patricia13, 14, Lara-Lpez Ana13, Kudela Raphael15, Lopes Ribens M16, Kiko Rainer17, Karp-Boss Lee3, Jaffe Jules S10, Iversen Morten H11, 18, Irisson Jean-Olivier1, Fennel Katja19, Hauss Helena17, Guidi Lionel1, Gorsky Gaby1, Giering Sarah L.C.20, Gaube Peter21, Gallager Scott6, Dubelaar George22, Cowen Robert K23, Carlotti François24, Briseno-Avena Christian25, Berline Léo24, Benoit-Bird Kelly25, Bax Nicholas26, Batten Sonia14, 27, Ayata Sakina Dorothée1, 28, Artigas Luis Felipe29, Appeltans Ward30
Affiliation(s) 1 : Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
2 : Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France
3 : School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States
4 : Department of Oceanography, Ocean Frontier Institute, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
5 : Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
6 : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States
7 : Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
8 : Ifremer Centre Atlantique, Unité Écologie et Modéles pour l'Halieutique (EMH), Nantes, France
9 : IEEE, Port Angeles, WA, United States
10 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
11 : Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz Centre of Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
12 : Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany
13 : Institute for Marine and Antarctic Science, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
14 : Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Simon Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela
15 : Department of Ocean Sciences, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, United States
16 : Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
17 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
18 : MARUM and Faculty of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
19 : Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
20 : Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
21 : Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
22 : CytoBuoy b.v., Woerden, Netherlands
23 : Hatfield Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, OR, United States
24 : CNRS, IRD, MIO UM 110, Aix Marseille Univ., Universite de Toulon, Marseille, France
25 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, United States
26 : CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia
27 : The CPR Survey-MBA, Nanaimo, BC, Canada
28 : Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, Paris, France
29 : Univ. Littoral Cote d'Opale, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8187, Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences, Wimereux, France
30 : Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, IOC Project office for IODE, Oostende, Belgium
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-04 , Vol. 6 , N. 196 , P. 21p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00196
Keyword(s) plankton, imaging, OceanObs, autonomous platforms, global observing, EOVs, ECVs
Abstract

In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.

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Lomnard Fabien, Boss Emmanuel, Waite Anya M., Vogt Meike, Uitz Julia, Stemman Lars, Sosik Heidi M., Schulz Jan, Romagnan Jean-Baptiste, Picheral Marc, Pearlman Jay, Ohman Mark D, Niehoff Barbara, Möller Klas O, Miloslavich Patricia, Lara-Lpez Ana, Kudela Raphael, Lopes Ribens M, Kiko Rainer, Karp-Boss Lee, Jaffe Jules S, Iversen Morten H, Irisson Jean-Olivier, Fennel Katja, Hauss Helena, Guidi Lionel, Gorsky Gaby, Giering Sarah L.C., Gaube Peter, Gallager Scott, Dubelaar George, Cowen Robert K, Carlotti François, Briseno-Avena Christian, Berline Léo, Benoit-Bird Kelly, Bax Nicholas, Batten Sonia, Ayata Sakina Dorothée, Artigas Luis Felipe, Appeltans Ward (2019). Globally Consistent Quantitative Observations of Planktonic Ecosystems. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(196), 21p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00196 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00490/60217/