Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Bacteria as a Source of Glycosaminoglycan-Mimetic Exopolysaccharides

Type Article
Date 2019-05
Language English
Author(s) Zykwinska AgataORCID1, Marchand Laetitia1, Bonnetot Sandrine1, Sinquin CorinneORCID1, Colliec-Jouault SylviaORCID1, Delbarre-Ladrat ChristineORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER, Lab Ecosyst Microbiens & Mol Marines Biotechnol, F-44311 Nantes, France.
Source Molecules (1420-3049) (Mdpi), 2019-05 , Vol. 24 , N. 9 , P. 1703 (11p.)
DOI 10.3390/molecules24091703
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) exopolysaccharide, glycosaminoglycan, uronic acid, hexosamine, phylogenetic analysis
Abstract

Bacteria have developed a unique strategy to survive in extreme environmental conditions through the synthesis of an extracellular polymeric matrix conferring upon the cells a protective microenvironment. The main structural component of this complex network constitutes high-molecular weight hydrophilic macromolecules, namely exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS composition with the presence of particular chemical features may closely be related to the specific conditions in which bacteria evolve. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria have already been shown to produce EPS rich in hexosamines and uronic acids, frequently bearing some sulfate groups. Such a particular composition ensures interesting functional properties, including biological activities mimicking those known for glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The aim of the present study was to go further into the exploration of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent IFREMER (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea) collection of bacteria to discover new strains able to excrete EPS endowed with GAG-like structural features. After the screening of our whole collection containing 692 strains, 38 bacteria have been selected for EPS production at the laboratory scale. EPS-producing strains were identified according to 16S rDNA phylogeny. Chemical characterization of the obtained EPS highlighted their high chemical diversity with the presence of atypical compositional patterns. These EPS constitute potential bioactives for a number of biomedical applications, including regenerative medicines and cancer treatment.

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