Ship-Based Contributions to Global Ocean, Weather, and Climate Observing Systems

Type Article
Date 2019-08
Language English
Author(s) Smith Shawn R.1, Alory Gaël2, Andersson Axel3, Asher William4, Baker Alex5, Berry David I.6, Drushka Kyla4, Figurskey Darin7, Freeman Eric8, Holthus Paul9, Jickells Tim5, Kleta Henry10, Kent Elizabeth C.6, Kolodziejczyk NicolasORCID11, Kramp Martin12, Loh Zoe13, Poli Paul14, Schuster Ute15, Steventon Emma16, Swart Sebastiaan17, 18, Tarasova Oksana19, Petit De La Villeon LoicORCID20, Vinogradova-Shiffer Nadya21
Affiliation(s) 1 : Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States
2 : LEGOS, CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Toulouse, France
3 : Maritimes Datenzentrum, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg, Germany
4 : Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
5 : School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
6 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
7 : Ocean Prediction Center, NOAA National Weather Service, College Park, MD, United States
8 : ERT, Inc., National Centers for Environmental Information/CCOG, Asheville, NC, United States
9 : World Ocean Council, Honolulu, HI, United States
10 : Maritimes Messnetz, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg, Germany
11 : Laboratory of Ocean Physics, University of Brest, Plouzané, France
12 : JCOMMOPS, WMO/IOC-UNESCO, Brest, France
13 : Oceans and Atmosphere, CSIRO, Aspendale, VIC, Australia
14 : Centre de Météorologie Marine, Météo-France, Brest, France
15 : College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
16 : Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
17 : Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
18 : Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa
19 : Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
20 : IFREMER/Sismer, Plouzané, France
21 : Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, United States
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-08 , Vol. 6 , N. 434 , P. 26p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00434
WOS© Times Cited 10
Keyword(s) ships, observations, meteorology, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, data management, climatology
Abstract

The role ships play in atmospheric, oceanic, and biogeochemical observations is described with a focus on measurements made near the ocean surface. Ships include merchant and research vessels; cruise liners and ferries; fishing vessels; coast guard, military, and other government-operated ships; yachts; and a growing fleet of automated surface vessels. The present capabilities of ships to measure essential climate/ocean variables and the requirements from a broad community to address operational, commercial, and scientific needs are described. The authors provide a vision to expand observations needed from ships to understand and forecast the exchanges across the ocean–atmosphere interface. The vision addresses (1) recruiting vessels to improve both spatial and temporal sampling, (2) conducting multivariate sampling on ships, (3) raising technology readiness levels of automated shipboard sensors and ship-to-shore data communications, (4) advancing quality evaluation of observations, and (5) developing a unified data management approach for observations and metadata that meet the needs of a diverse user community. Recommendations are made focusing on integrating private and autonomous vessels into the observing system, investing in sensor and communications technology development, developing an integrated data management structure that includes all types of ships, and moving toward a quality evaluation process that will result in a subset of ships being defined as mobile reference ships that will support climate studies. We envision a future where commercial, research, and privately owned vessels are making multivariate observations using a combination of automated and human-observed measurements. All data and metadata will be documented, tracked, evaluated, distributed, and archived to benefit users of marine data. This vision looks at ships as a holistic network, not a set of disparate commercial, research, and/or third-party activities working in isolation, to bring these communities together for the mutual benefit of all.

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Smith Shawn R., Alory Gaël, Andersson Axel, Asher William, Baker Alex, Berry David I., Drushka Kyla, Figurskey Darin, Freeman Eric, Holthus Paul, Jickells Tim, Kleta Henry, Kent Elizabeth C., Kolodziejczyk Nicolas, Kramp Martin, Loh Zoe, Poli Paul, Schuster Ute, Steventon Emma, Swart Sebastiaan, Tarasova Oksana, Petit De La Villeon Loic, Vinogradova-Shiffer Nadya (2019). Ship-Based Contributions to Global Ocean, Weather, and Climate Observing Systems. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(434), 26p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00434 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00509/62042/