The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A Platform for Integrated Multidisciplinary Ocean Science

Type Article
Date 2019-08
Language English
Author(s) Sloyan Bernadette M.1, Wanninkhof Rik2, Kramp Martin3, Johnson Gregory C.4, Talley Lynne D.5, Tanhua Toste6, McDonagh Elaine7, Cusack Caroline8, O’rourke Eleanor8, McGovern Evin8, Katsumata Katsuro9, Diggs Steve5, Hummon Julia10, Ishii Masao11, Azetsu-Scott Kumiko12, Boss Emmanuel13, Ansorge Isabelle14, Perez Fiz15, Mercier HerleORCID16, Williams Michael J. M.17, Anderson Leif18, Lee Jae Hak19, Murata Akihiko9, Kouketsu Shinya9, Jeansson Emil20, Hoppema Mario21, Campos Edmo22, 23
Affiliation(s) 1 : CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia
2 : NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL, United States
3 : JCOMMOPS, WMO/IOC-UNESCO, Brest, France
4 : NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, United States
5 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
6 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
7 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
8 : Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland
9 : Global Chemical and Physical Oceanography Group, JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Japan
10 : SOEST, University of Hawai’i, Honolulu, Honolulu, HI, United States
11 : JMA, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
12 : Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
13 : School of Marine Sciences, The University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States
14 : Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
15 : Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), Vigo, Spain
16 : CNRS, Ifremer Centre de Bretagne, University of Brest, Plouzané, France
17 : National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand
18 : Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
19 : Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Busan, South Korea
20 : NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
21 : Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
22 : Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
23 : Gulf Environments Research Institute, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-08 , Vol. 6 , N. 445 , P. 21p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00445
WOS© Times Cited 19
Keyword(s) GO-SHIP, ship-based observations, multidisciplinary ocean research, contemporaneous ocean observations, global ocean change and variability, health, essential ocean variables, essential climate variables
Abstract

The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) provides a globally coordinated network and oversight of 55 sustained decadal repeat hydrographic reference lines. GO-SHIP is part of the global ocean/climate observing systems (GOOS/GCOS) for study of physical oceanography, the ocean carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycles, and marine biogeochemistry. GO-SHIP enables assessment of the ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, changing ocean circulation and ventilation patterns, and their effects on ocean health and Earth’s climate. Rapid quality control and open data release along with incorporation of the GO-SHIP effort in the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) in situ Observing Programs Support Center (JCOMMOPS) have increased the profile of, and participation in, the program and led to increased data use for a range of efforts. In addition to scientific discovery, GO-SHIP provides climate quality observations for ongoing calibration of measurements from existing and new autonomous platforms. This includes biogeochemical observations for the nascent array of biogeochemical (BGC)-Argo floats; temperature and salinity for Deep Argo; and salinity for the core Argo array. GO-SHIP provides the relevant suite of global, full depth, high quality observations and co-located deployment opportunities that, for the foreseeable future, remain crucial to maintenance and evolution of Argo’s unique contribution to climate science. The evolution of GO-SHIP from a program primarily focused on physical climate to increased emphasis on ocean health and sustainability has put an emphasis on the addition of essential ocean variables for biology and ecosystems in the program measurement suite. In conjunction with novel automated measurement systems, ocean color, particulate matter, and phytoplankton enumeration are being explored as GO-SHIP variables. The addition of biological and ecosystem measurements will enable GO-SHIP to determine trends and variability in these key indicators of ocean health. The active and adaptive community has sustained the network, quality and relevance of the global repeat hydrography effort through societally important scientific results, increased exposure, and interoperability with new efforts and opportunities within the community. Here we provide key recommendations for the continuation and growth of GO-SHIP in the next decade.

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Sloyan Bernadette M., Wanninkhof Rik, Kramp Martin, Johnson Gregory C., Talley Lynne D., Tanhua Toste, McDonagh Elaine, Cusack Caroline, O’rourke Eleanor, McGovern Evin, Katsumata Katsuro, Diggs Steve, Hummon Julia, Ishii Masao, Azetsu-Scott Kumiko, Boss Emmanuel, Ansorge Isabelle, Perez Fiz, Mercier Herle, Williams Michael J. M., Anderson Leif, Lee Jae Hak, Murata Akihiko, Kouketsu Shinya, Jeansson Emil, Hoppema Mario, Campos Edmo (2019). The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A Platform for Integrated Multidisciplinary Ocean Science. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(445), 21p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00445 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00509/62062/