Scanning Electron Microscopic Aids for Identification of Larval and Post-Larval Bivalves

Type Article
Date 2018-06
Language English
Author(s) Lutz Richard A.1, Goodwin Jacob D.1, Baldwin Brad S.2, Burnell Gavin3, Castagna Michael4, Chapman Samuel5, Chestnut Al6, Dabinett Patrick7, Davis Chris5, Eversole Arnold G.8, Fuller S. Cynthia1, Gallager Scott M.9, Goldberg Ronald10, Goodsell Joy1, Grassle Judith1, Gustafson Richard G.11, Hidu Herbert5, Hu Ya-Ping1, Jablonski David12, Johnson Shannon13, Kennedy Victor S.14, Le Pennec Marcel15, Mann Roger16, Newell Carter5, Pooley Alan S.1, Tan Antonieto S.1, Vrijenhoek Robert C.13, Partridge A.
Affiliation(s) 1 : Rutgers State Univ, Dept Marine & Coastal Sci, 71 Dudley Rd, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA.
2 : St Lawrence Univ, Dept Biol, 23 Romoda Dr, Canton, NY 13617 USA.
3 : Univ Coll Cork, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, North Mall Campus, Cork T23 N73K, Ireland.
4 : Coll William & Mary, Virginia Inst Marine Sci, 40 Atlantic Ave, Wachapreague, VA 23480 USA.
5 : Univ Maine, Ira C Darling Ctr, 193 Clarks Cove Rd, Walpole, ME 04573 USA.
6 : Belhaven Coll, Dept Biol, 1701 N State St, Jackson, MS 39202 USA.
7 : Mem Univ Newfoundland, Marine Sci Res Lab, 230 Elizaabeth Ave, St John, NF A1C 5S7, Canada.
8 : Clemson Univ, Dept Aquaculture Fisheries & Wildlife, 261 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 USA.
9 : Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, 266 Woods Hole Rd, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA.
10 : Northeast Fisheries Ctr, Natl Marine Fisheries Serv, Milford Lab, 212 Rogers Ave, Milford, CT 06460 USA.
11 : NOAA, Natl Marine Fisheries Serv, Northwest Fisheries Sci Ctr, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112 USA.
12 : Univ Chicago, Dept Geophys Sci, 5734 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
13 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, 7700 Sandholdt Rd, Moss Landing, CA 95039 USA.
14 : Univ Maryland, Chesapeake Biol Lab, Ctr Environm Sci, 146 Williams St, Solomons, MD 20688 USA.
15 : Inst Univ Europeen Mer, Lab Sci Environm Marin LEMAR, Pl Nicolas Copern, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
16 : Coll William & Mary, Virginia Inst Marine Sci, 1375 Greate Rd, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
Source Journal Of Shellfish Research (0730-8000) (Natl Shellfisheries Assoc), 2018-06 , Vol. 37 , N. 2 , P. 247-448
DOI 10.2983/035.037.0202
WOS© Times Cited 3
Keyword(s) bivalve, larvae, postlarvae, identification, scanning electron microscopy

The identification of bivalve larvae and early postlarvae in plankton and benthic samples has long been a challenge, hampering both basic and applied research efforts in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments. The usefulness of published optical micrographs of the early life-history stages of bivalves is limited because of the great morphological similarity of the imaged articulated shells, particularly at the early (straight-hinge) developmental stages. While a number of techniques have been refined in recent years and show promise for use in routine identifications of larval and post-larval bivalves (e.g., single-step nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction; in situ hybridization protocols through color coding with taxon-specific, dye-labeled DNA probes; coupled fluorescence in situ hybridization and cell sorting; and image analysis techniques using species-specific shell birefringence patterns under polarized light), no adequate comprehensive reference source exists that accurately depicts the morphology and morphometry of the shells of larval and post-larval stages of target bivalve species in a consistent format to assist in identification of such stages. To this end, scanning electron micrograph (SEM) sequences are presented of the disarticulated shell valves of laboratory-reared larval and post-larval stages of 56 species of bivalve molluscs from a wide spectrum of marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats. Emphasis is placed on the usefulness of the morphology and morphometrics of consistently-oriented, disarticulated shell valves and associated hinge structures in discriminating the early life-history stages of these various bivalve species. Although the scanning electron micrograph sequences presented accurately depict the gross morphologies/morphometrics and hinge structures of the disarticulated shell valves of the larvae and/or postlarvae of the 56 species of bivalves, it is important to emphasize that a scanning electron microscope is not necessary to observe even fine hinge structures associated with the early ontogenetic stages of these species. Such structures are readily visible using a wide range of optical compound microscopes equipped with high-intensity reflected light sources, although the disarticulated shell valves must be viewed in several planes of focus to discern the often subtle details seen clearly in the scanning electron micrographs. These morphological characters provide researchers with invaluable aids for the routine identification of the early life-history stages of these species isolated from plankton and benthic samples.

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Lutz Richard A., Goodwin Jacob D., Baldwin Brad S., Burnell Gavin, Castagna Michael, Chapman Samuel, Chestnut Al, Dabinett Patrick, Davis Chris, Eversole Arnold G., Fuller S. Cynthia, Gallager Scott M., Goldberg Ronald, Goodsell Joy, Grassle Judith, Gustafson Richard G., Hidu Herbert, Hu Ya-Ping, Jablonski David, Johnson Shannon, Kennedy Victor S., Le Pennec Marcel, Mann Roger, Newell Carter, Pooley Alan S., Tan Antonieto S., Vrijenhoek Robert C., Partridge A. (2018). Scanning Electron Microscopic Aids for Identification of Larval and Post-Larval Bivalves. Journal Of Shellfish Research, 37(2), 247-448. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :