Advancing Marine Biological Observations and Data Requirements of the Complementary Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) Frameworks
|Author(s)||Muller-Karger Frank E.1, Miloslavich Patricia2, 3, Bax Nicholas J.2, 4, Simmons Samantha5, Costello Mark J.6, Pinto Isabel Sousa7, Canonico Gabrielle8, Turner Woody9, Gill Michael10, Montes Enrique1, Best Benjamin D.11, Pearlman Jay12, Halpin Patrick13, Dunn Daniel13, Benson Abigail14, Martin Corinne S.15, Weatherdon Lauren V.15, Appeltans Ward16, Provoost Pieter16, Klein Eduardo3, 16, Kelble Christopher R.17, Miller Robert J.18, Chavez Francisco P.19, Iken Katrin20, Chiba Sanae16, 21, Obura David22, Navarro Laetitia M.23, 24, Pereira Henrique M.23, 24, 25, Allain Valerie26, Batten Sonia27, Benedetti-Checchi Lisandro28, Duffy J. Emmett29, Kudela Raphael M.30, Rebelo Lisa-Maria31, Shin Yunne-Jai32, Geller Gary33|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ South Florida St Petersburg, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL 33701 USA.
2 : Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
3 : Univ Simon Bolivar, Dept Estudios Ambientales, Caracas, Venezuela.
4 : Commonwealth Sci & Ind Res Org Oceans & Atmospher, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
5 : US Marine Mammal Commiss, Washington, DC USA.
6 : Univ Auckland, Inst Marine Sci, Auckland, New Zealand.
7 : Univ Porto, Ctr Marine & Environm Res, Porto, Portugal.
8 : NOAA, US Integrated Ocean Observing Syst Program Off, Silver Spring, MD USA.
9 : NASA, Washington, DC 20546 USA.
10 : NatureServe, Canning, NS, Canada.
11 : EcoQuants LLC, Santa Barbara, CA USA.
12 : Fourbridges, Seattle, WA USA.
13 : Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Durham, NC 27708 USA.
14 : US Geol Survey, Boulder, CO USA.
15 : United Nations Environm World Conservat Monitorin, Cambridge, England.
16 : Intergovt Oceanog Commiss UNESCO, Ocean Biogeog Informat Syst, Oostende, Belgium.
17 : NOAA, Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
18 : Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Inst Marine Sci, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
19 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Monterey, CA USA.
20 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Coll Fisheries & Ocean Sci, Fairbanks, AK USA.
21 : Japan Agcy Marine Earth Sci & Technol JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
22 : Coastal Oceans Res & Dev Indian Ocean CORDIO East, Mombasa, Kenya.
23 : Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Halle, Germany.
24 : German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Leipzig, Germany.
25 : Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, Catedra REFER Biodiveridade, Vairao, Portugal.
26 : Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia.
27 : Marine Biol Assoc UK, CPR Survey, Nanaimo, BC, Canada.
28 : Univ Pisa, Dept Biol, Pisa, Italy.
29 : Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
30 : Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Inst Marine Sci, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
31 : Int Water Management Inst, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
32 : Inst Rech Dev, Sete, France.
33 : CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
|Source||Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media Sa), 2018-06 , Vol. 5 , N. 211 , P. 15p.|
|WOS© Times Cited||100|
|Keyword(s)||essential ocean variables (EOV), essential biodiversity variables (EBV), marine biodiversity observation network (MBON), global ocean observing system(GOOS), ocean biogeographic information system(OBIS), marine global earth observatory (MarineGEO), integrated marine biosphere research (IMBeR)|
Measurements of the status and trends of key indicators for the ocean and marine life are required to inform policy and management in the context of growing human uses of marine resources, coastal development, and climate change. Two synergistic efforts identify specific priority variables for monitoring: Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) through the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (see Data Sheet 1 in Supplementary Materials for a glossary of acronyms). Both systems support reporting against internationally agreed conventions and treaties. GOOS, established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), plays a leading role in coordinating global monitoring of the ocean and in the definition of EOVs. GEO BON is a global biodiversity observation network that coordinates observations to enhance management of the world's biodiversity and promote both the awareness and accounting of ecosystem services. Convergence and agreement between these two efforts are required to streamline existing and new marine observation programs to advance scientific knowledge effectively and to support the sustainable use and management of ocean spaces and resources. In this context, the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON), a thematic component of GEO BON, is collaborating with GOOS, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), and the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR) project to ensure that EBVs and EOVs are complementary, representing alternative uses of a common set of scientific measurements. This work is informed by the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM), an intergovernmental body of technical experts that helps international coordination on best practices for observing, data management and services, combined with capacity development expertise. Characterizing biodiversity and understanding its drivers will require incorporation of observations from traditional and molecular taxonomy, animal tagging and tracking efforts, ocean biogeochemistry, and ocean observatory initiatives including the deep ocean and seafloor. The partnership between large-scale ocean observing and product distribution initiatives (MBON, OBIS, JCOMM, and GOOS) is an expedited, effective way to support international policy-level assessments (e.g., the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services or IPBES), along with the implementation of international development goals (e.g., the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals).