Response and Effect Traits of Coral Reef Fish
|Author(s)||Hadj-Hammou Jeneen1, Mouillot David2, Graham Nicholas A. J.1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Lancaster University Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
2 : Marine Biodiversity Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), University of Montpellier, Le Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Ifremer, Montpellier, France
|Source||Frontiers in Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2021-03 , Vol. 8 , P. 640619 (14p.)|
|Keyword(s)||ecosystem processes, environmental disturbances, functional diversity, coral reef ecology, ecosystem function, trait-based ecology, systematic review|
The response-and-effect framework is a trait-based approach that seeks to break down the mechanistic links between ecosystem disturbances, species' traits, and ecosystem processes. We apply this framework to a review of the literature on coral reef fish traits, in order to illustrate the research landscape and structure a path forward for the field. Traits were categorized into five broad groupings: behavioral, life history, morphological, diet, and physiological. Overall, there are fewer studies linking effect traits to ecosystem processes (number of papers on herbivory, n = 14; predation, n = 12; bioerosion, n = 2; nutrient cycling, n = 0) than there are linking response traits to disturbances (climate change, n = 26; fishing, n = 20; pollution, n = 4). Through a network analysis, we show that the size and diet of fish are two of the most common response and effect traits currently used in the literature, central to studies on both ecosystem disturbances and processes. Behavioral and life history traits are more commonly shown to respond to disturbances, while morphological traits tend to be used in capturing ecosystem processes. Pearson correlation coefficients quantifying the strength of the relationships between the most commonly studied process, herbivory, and key effect traits (size, gregariousness, and diel activity) are provided. We find that the most popular cluster of traits used in functional diversity metrics (e.g., functional richness, functional dispersion) is comprised of size, diet, space use/position in the water column, diel activity, gregariousness, and mobility, which encompass three of the broad trait categories. Our assessment of the literature highlights that more research is needed to support an evidence-based selection of traits to understand and predict ecosystem functioning. In synthesizing the literature, we identify research gaps and provide an avenue toward a more robust trait-selection process.