Molecular and morphological data from Thoosidae in favour of the creation of a new suborder of Tetractinellida

Type Article
Date 2018
Language English
Author(s) Luis Carballo Jose1, Bautista-Guerrero EricORCID2, Cardenas PacoORCID3, Cruz-Barraza Jose Antonio1, Aguilar-Camacho Jose Maria4
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ciencias Mar & Limnol, Unidad Acad Mazatlan, Ave Joel Montes Camarena S-N,POB 811, Mazatlan 82000, Sin, Mexico.
2 : Univ Guadalajara, Ctr Invest Costeras, Ctr Univ Costa, Lab Ecol Marina, Ave Univ 2013 Del, Puerto Vallarta 48280, Jalisco, Mexico.
3 : Uppsala Univ, Div Pharmacognosy, Dept Med Chem, BioMed Ctr, Husargatan 3, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden.
4 : Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Nat, Sci, Zool,Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
Source Systematics And Biodiversity (1477-2000) (Taylor & Francis Ltd), 2018 , Vol. 16 , N. 5 , P. 512-521
DOI 10.1080/14772000.2018.1457100
WOS© Times Cited 4
Keyword(s) Astrophorina, molecular markers, Porifera, systematics, synapomorphy, Thoosidae
Abstract

The Thoosidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) currently includes the genera Thoosa, Alectona, and Delectona. To this date, molecular data are only available for Alectona. In this study, the phylogenetic affinities of the genera Thoosa and Alectona have been investigated with the species T. mismalolli, T. calpulli, and T. purpurea from the Mexican Pacific using morphology and three molecular loci: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 mtDNA), 28S rRNA (fragment D2), and 18S rRNA. Morphology and embryology showed that these genera are quite different from the rest of the tetractinellids because larvae of Alectona and Thoosa have unique features in sponges, such as the presence of monaxonic discs in Thoosa and tetraxonic discs in Alectona which disappear in the adult stages. A phylogenetic analysis using selected species from the order Tetractinellida revealed that Thoosa groups with Alectona thus confirming morphological studies. The peculiarities in spiculation and embryology of the Thoosa and Alectona larvae, which are markedly different from species belonging to the suborders Astrophorina and Spirophorina and their distant phylogenetic position (based on three molecular loci), suggest that Thoosidae could be placed in the new suborder Thoosina.

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