Quand les politiques environnementales attisent les tensions interculturelles en Guyane française

When environmental policies fuel intercultural tensions in French Guiana

Quando as políticas ambientais alimentam as tensões interculturais na Guiana Francesa

Type Article
Date 2020-03
Language French, English, Spanish
Author(s) Jacob Théo1, Palisse Marianne2, Aubertin Catherine3
Affiliation(s) 1 : CNRS, UMR Dynafor (Inrae), UMR Paloc (IRD, MNHN), France
2 : Université de Guyane, USR LEEISA (CNRS-UG-Ifremer)., france
3 : IRD, UMR Paloc (IRD-MNHN, france
Source Cahiers des Amériques latines (1141-7161) (OpenEdition), 2020-03 , Vol. 1 , N. 93 , P. 113-132
DOI 10.4000/cal.10789
Mot-Clé(s) Politiques environnementales, interculturalité, biodiversité, savoirs locaux, démocratie
French abstract

Cet article montre à partir de trois entrées comment les politiques environnementales menées en Guyane française, en tentant de composer avec la diversité culturelle locale, tendent à ethniciser les rapports sociaux. Le Parc amazonien de Guyane, qui apparaît comme une réaffirmation de la présence de l’État dans le sud de la Guyane, expérimente des modes de gouvernance qui favorisent la concurrence interethnique. La mise en place des accords de partage des avantages liés aux ressources biologiques prévus dans le protocole de Nagoya a introduit un différentiel entre certaines catégories de la population, qui doivent être consultées, et d’autres, qui ne le sont pas. Enfin, l’angle mort de ces politiques est constitué par les populations issues de l’immigration exclues des dispositifs d’accès aux ressources, et non considérées comme porteuses de connaissances sur la biodiversité.

Keyword(s) Environmental policies, inter-ethnicity, biodiversity, local knowledge, democracy
Abstract

This paper shows, from three perspectives, how the environmental policies in French Guiana, trying to deal with the local cultural diversity, tend to ethnicize social relations. The Guiana Amazonian Park, which seems to be a reaffirmation of the state’s presence in the southern French Guiana, experiments modes of governance which increase interethnic competition. The implementation of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization has introduced a difference between different categories of the population : some of them must be consulted whereas the others mustn’t. Finally, people from immigration are a blind-spot of these policies. Migrants do not have any facility to access to the resources of the land, and are not considered as biodiversity knowledge holders.

Abstract <p>Esse artigo mostra, a partir de tr&ecirc;s casos, como as pol&iacute;ticas ambientais desenvolvidas na Guiana francesa, ao tentar valorizar a diversidade cultural local, tendem a etnicizar as rela&ccedil;&otilde;es sociais. O Parque amaz&ocirc;nico da Guiana, que aparece como uma reafirma&ccedil;&atilde;o do Estado no sul do territ&oacute;rio, experimenta modos de governan&ccedil;a que favorecem a concorr&ecirc;ncia inter&eacute;tnica. A aplica&ccedil;&atilde;o na Guiana dos acordos de reparti&ccedil;&atilde;o de benef&iacute;cios sobre os recursos gen&eacute;ticos previstos no Protocolo de Nag&oacute;ia introduziu um diferencial entre certas categorias da popula&ccedil;&atilde;o que devem ser consultadas, enquanto outras n&atilde;o. Por fim, as popula&ccedil;&otilde;es imigradas constituem o ponto cego dessas pol&iacute;ticas p&uacute;blicas. Os migrantes n&atilde;o s&atilde;o benefici&aacute;rios dos dispositivos de acesso aos recursos do territ&oacute;rio e n&atilde;o s&atilde;o considerados como portadores de conhecimentos sobre a biodiversidade.</p>
Full Text
File Pages Size Access
Publisher's official version 21 827 KB Open access
Top of the page

How to cite 

Jacob Théo, Palisse Marianne, Aubertin Catherine (2020). Quand les politiques environnementales attisent les tensions interculturelles en Guyane française / When environmental policies fuel intercultural tensions in French Guiana / Quando as políticas ambientais alimentam as tensões interculturais na Guiana Francesa. Cahiers des Amériques latines, 1(93), 113-132. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.4000/cal.10789 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00691/80335/