Environmental DNA metabarcoding reveals and unpacks a biodiversity conservation paradox in Mediterranean marine reserves

Type Article
Date 2021-04
Language English
Author(s) Boulanger EmilieORCID1, 2, Loiseau NicolasORCID2, Valentini AliceORCID3, Arnal Véronique1, Boissery Pierre4, Dejean Tony3, Deter Julie5, Guellati Nacim2, Holon Florian5, Juhel Jean-BaptisteORCID2, Lenfant Philippe6, Manel StéphanieORCID1, Mouillot DavidORCID2, 7
Affiliation(s) 1 : CEFE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE-PSL University, IRD, Montpellier, France
2 : MARBEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Montpellier, France
3 : SPYGEN, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France
4 : Agence de l'Eau Rhône-Méditerranée-Corse, Délégation de Marseille, Marseille, France
5 : Andromède Océanologie, Carnon, France
6 : CEFREM, CNRS, UPVD, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
7 : Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France
Source Proceedings Of The Royal Society B-biological Sciences (0962-8452) (The Royal Society), 2021-04 , Vol. 288 , N. 1949 , P. 20210112 (10p.)
DOI 10.1098/rspb.2021.0112
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) environmental DNA metabarcoding, marine reserves, alpha and beta diversity
Abstract

Although we are currently experiencing worldwide biodiversity loss, local species richness does not always decline under anthropogenic pressure. This conservation paradox may also apply in protected areas but has not yet received conclusive evidence in marine ecosystems. Here, we survey fish assemblages in six Mediterranean no-take reserves and their adjacent fishing grounds using environmental DNA (eDNA) while controlling for environmental conditions. We detect less fish species in marine reserves than in nearby fished areas. The paradoxical gradient in species richness is accompanied by a marked change in fish species composition under different managements. This dissimilarity is mainly driven by species that are often overlooked by classical visual surveys but detected with eDNA: cryptobenthic, pelagic, and rare fishes. These results do not negate the importance of reserves in protecting biodiversity but shed new light on how under-represented species groups can positively react to fishing pressure and how conservation efforts can shape regional biodiversity patterns.

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Boulanger Emilie, Loiseau Nicolas, Valentini Alice, Arnal Véronique, Boissery Pierre, Dejean Tony, Deter Julie, Guellati Nacim, Holon Florian, Juhel Jean-Baptiste, Lenfant Philippe, Manel Stéphanie, Mouillot David (2021). Environmental DNA metabarcoding reveals and unpacks a biodiversity conservation paradox in Mediterranean marine reserves. Proceedings Of The Royal Society B-biological Sciences, 288(1949), 20210112 (10p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.0112 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00692/80374/