Niche differentiation of Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata in a stratified fjord

Type Article
Date 2021-03
Language English
Author(s) Baldrich Ángela M.ORCID1, 10, Pérez-Santos Iván2, 3, Álvarez GonzaloORCID4, 5, Reguera Beatriz6, Fernández-Pena Concepción7, Rodríguez-Villegas Camilo1, 10, Araya MichaelORCID5, Álvarez Francisco5, Barrera Facundo8, Karasiewicz Stephane9, Díaz Patricio A.ORCID2, 10
Affiliation(s) 1 : Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias, mención Conservación y Manejo de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Los Lagos, Camino Chinquihue km 6, Puerto Montt, Chile
2 : Centro i~mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile
3 : Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica COPAS Sur-Austral, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
4 : Departamento de Acuicultura, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
5 : Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA), Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
6 : Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Vigo, Spain
7 : Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), A Coruña, Spain
8 : Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR2), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas Universidad de Concepción & Departamento de Química Ambiental Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile
9 : Laboratory of Environment Resources, Boulogne- sur- Mer, French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER), Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
10 : CeBiB, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557, Puerto Montt, Chile
Source Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier BV), 2021-03 , Vol. 103 , P. 102010 (17p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2021.102010
Keyword(s) Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis acuta, Realized niche, in situ division rates, Microplanktonic ciliate prey, DSP toxins, Pectenotoxins, Chilean fjords
Abstract

Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata are associated with lipophilic toxins in Southern Chile. Blooms of the two species coincided during summer 2019 in a highly stratified fjord system (Puyuhuapi, Chilean Patagonia). High vertical resolution measurements of physical parameters were carried out during 48 h sampling to i) explore physiological status (e.g., division rates, toxin content) and ii) illustrate the fine scale distribution of D. acuta and D. acuminata populations with a focus on water column structure and co-occurring plastid-bearing ciliates. The species-specific resources and regulators defining the realized niches (sensu Hutchinson) of the two species were identified. Differences in vertical distribution, daily vertical migration and in situ division rates (with record values, 0.76 d−1, in D. acuta), in response to the environmental conditions and potential prey availability, revealed their niche differences. The Outlying Mean Index (OMI) analysis showed that the realized niche of D. acuta (cell maximum 7 × 103 cells L−1 within the pycnocline) was characterized by sub-surface estuarine waters (salinity 23 – 25), lower values of turbulence and PAR, and a narrow niche breath. In contrast, the realized niche of D. acuminata (cell maximum 6.8 × 103 cells L−1 just above the pycnocline) was characterized by fresher (salinity 17 – 20) outflowing surface waters, with higher turbulence and light intensity and a wider niche breadth. Results from OMI and PERMANOVA analyses of co-occurring microplanktonic ciliates were compatible with the hypothesis of species such as those from genera Pseudotontonia and Strombidium constituting an alternative ciliate prey to Mesodinium. The D. acuta cell maximum was associated with DSP (OA and DTX-1) toxins and pectenotoxins; that of D. acuminata only with pectenotoxins. Results presented here contribute to a better understanding of the environmental drivers of species-specific blooms of Dinophysis and management of their distinct effects in Southern Chile.

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Baldrich Ángela M., Pérez-Santos Iván, Álvarez Gonzalo, Reguera Beatriz, Fernández-Pena Concepción, Rodríguez-Villegas Camilo, Araya Michael, Álvarez Francisco, Barrera Facundo, Karasiewicz Stephane, Díaz Patricio A. (2021). Niche differentiation of Dinophysis acuta and D. acuminata in a stratified fjord. Harmful Algae, 103, 102010 (17p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2021.102010 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00693/80484/