Maximizing regional biodiversity requires a mosaic of protection levels

Type Article
Date 2021-05
Language English
Author(s) Loiseau NicolasORCID1, 2, 3, Thuiller WilfriedORCID2, Stuart-Smith Rick D.ORCID4, Devictor Vincent5, Edgar Graham J.4, Velez Laure1, Cinner Joshua E.6, Graham Nicholas A. J.ORCID7, Renaud Julien2, Hoey Andrew S.ORCID6, Manel Stephanie8, Mouillot DavidORCID1, 9
Affiliation(s) 1 : MARBEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Montpellier, France
2 : Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, LECA, Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, F-38000 Grenoble, France
3 : CEFE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE-PSL University, IRD, Univ Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Montpellier, France
4 : Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
5 : CNRS, ISEM, Université de Montpellier, IRD, EPHE, Montpellier, France
6 : ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
7 : Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
8 : EPHE, PSL Research University, CNRS, UM, SupAgro, IRD, INRA, UMR 5175 CEFE, F-Montpellier, France
9 : Institut Universitaire de France, IUF, Paris, France
Source Plos Biology (1544-9173) (Public Library of Science (PLoS)), 2021-05 , Vol. 19 , N. 5 , P. e3001195 (18p.)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001195
Abstract

Protected areas are the flagship management tools to secure biodiversity from anthropogenic impacts. However, the extent to which adjacent areas with distinct protection levels host different species numbers and compositions remains uncertain. Here, using reef fishes, European alpine plants, and North American birds, we show that the composition of species in adjacent Strictly Protected, Restricted, and Non-Protected areas is highly dissimilar, whereas the number of species is similar, after controlling for environmental conditions, sample size, and rarity. We find that between 12% and 15% of species are only recorded in Non-Protected areas, suggesting that a non-negligible part of regional biodiversity occurs where human activities are less regulated. For imperiled species, the proportion only recorded in Strictly Protected areas reaches 58% for fishes, 11% for birds, and 7% for plants, highlighting the fundamental and unique role of protected areas and their environmental conditions in biodiversity conservation.

Full Text
File Pages Size Access
Publisher's official version 18 1 MB Open access
S1 Table. Information on sampling size for Strictly Protected Areas (SPA), Restricted Areas (RA), and Non-protected Areas (NPA) for birds, reef fishes, and alpine plants. 1 43 KB Open access
S2 Table. Names and sources of datasets used in the present study. 1 52 KB Open access
S1 Fig. Result of the partial dbRDAs. 1 77 KB Open access
S2 Fig. Boxplot showing SES values of multiple-site beta diversities (green) and their partitioning components of turnover (orange) and nestedness-resultant (blue) ... 4 477 KB Open access
S3 Fig. Boxplots showing the multiple-site beta diversities (green) and their partitioning components of turnover (orange) and nestedness-resultant (blue... 2 545 KB Open access
S4 Fig. Boxplots showing the multiple-site beta diversities (green) and their partitioning components of turnover (orange) and nestedness-resultant (blue) ... 1 287 KB Open access
S5 Fig. Probability of presence of reef fishes, birds, and alpine plants species for the 3 management types—SPA, RA, and NPA without any geographical buffer and control of sampling effort. 1 279 KB Open access
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How to cite 

Loiseau Nicolas, Thuiller Wilfried, Stuart-Smith Rick D., Devictor Vincent, Edgar Graham J., Velez Laure, Cinner Joshua E., Graham Nicholas A. J., Renaud Julien, Hoey Andrew S., Manel Stephanie, Mouillot David (2021). Maximizing regional biodiversity requires a mosaic of protection levels. Plos Biology, 19(5), e3001195 (18p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001195 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00696/80776/